Setting up the Kali Linux VM

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Time
21 hours 43 minutes
Difficulty
Intermediate
CEU/CPE
22
Video Transcription
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>> Module 3, Kali Linux Basics.
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Setting up the Kali Linux VM.
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Learning objectives are to understand the types of
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virtual machine software available to run Kali Linux,
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know how to download Kali Linux and run it in VirtualBox,
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and then explain Kali Linux VM best practices.
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Hopefully, if you're watching this course,
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you already have some familiarization
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with virtualization software.
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If you use things like VulnHub,
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what you're going to need to do is
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use something like VirtualBox
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or VMware to load these virtual machines in.
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Virtualization is like inception.
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It's a computer within a computer.
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You have your host operating system,
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whether you have a Mac or you have Windows,
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and then you have a computer within
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that using this virtualization software,
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which is really just a file,
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but is a whole operating system
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contained within your computer.
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For example, people who
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analyze malware will do so in a virtual machine
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because the malware will infect
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the virtual machine but not the host
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operating system or hopefully it won't.
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The software that's available is Oracle's VirtualBox.
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There's also VMware Workstation Player for Windows.
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There's also a pro version,
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so there's VMware Fusion for
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Mac and VMware Workstation Pro for Windows.
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Because I do a lot of virtualization,
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I do pay for the pro version of Fusion and Workstation.
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I started learning on Oracle VirtualBox just because it's
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free and it runs on every platform
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that runs on Windows, Linux,
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and Mac, and
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VMware Workstation Player only
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runs on Windows and Linux,
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VMware Fusion is for Macs.
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What you're going to want to do is
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you're going to want to download
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an ISO file from the Kali download webpage.
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Now, you're not only going to use
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this for these exercises,
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but you'll need these for things like Hack The Box,
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or for VulnHub, or for TryHackMe.
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That's where you'll run your open VPN software
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from and do everything within your virtual machine.
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Most modern computers are 64 bit,
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so you'll want to use the 64 bit version of Kali.
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There still is a 32 bit.
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You'll notice that if you have a Windows OS
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that you need to enable
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virtualization to run the 64 bit VMs.
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Otherwise, you can only run the 32 bit.
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Make sure you look at your bios and you
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ensure that that virtualization is enabled.
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That's the hard way to do it is
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to download this ISO file.
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The easy way to do it is to download custom images for
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VirtualBox and VMware from the Kali Linux website.
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Again, you may need to enable virtualization.
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Google that if you're having issues on how to go through
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the bios or UEFI to
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enable virtualization on your machine.
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You only need two gigabytes of RAM.
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The virtualization software will
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share the memory of your computer.
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The VM is going to be using two gigabytes of RAM,
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and then however many gigabytes
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you have for your host OS,
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it will borrow from that.
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You're also going to need 80 gigabytes of disk space.
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I'm going to walk through how to do this,
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how to download the ISO file, and how to install it.
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Here we are in the Kali Linux Downloads site.
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You can see here is the Kali Linux 64 bit Installer.
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What you want to do is download that as 4.1 gigabytes,
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and that's going to take you some time to download.
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But once you're ready, you're going to click "New".
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You're going to name it
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Kali_Linux and then click "Continue".
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You don't want this to be two gigabytes of RAM,
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so do 2048,
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"Continue", create a virtual hard disk now.
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We're going to want to select VDI,
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VirtualBox disk image dynamically
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allocated for the hard drive.
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We don't want this to be 80 gigabytes.
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Now we're going to want to go into Settings.
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In Advanced, we want to enable
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bidirectional shared clipboard that will allow us
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to put things from our clipboard into and out of our VM,
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as well as drag-and-drop bidirectional so we
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can pull files into and out of the VM.
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For video memory, boost that all the way
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up to 128 megabytes,
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make sure enable 3D acceleration is off.
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Now, we want to make sure in processor we
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enable PAE/NX, click "Okay".
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Now we're going to click "Start".
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You're going to want to
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select the ISO file that you downloaded
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from the Kali Linux website and click "Start".
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When prompted, we want to use the graphical install.
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Now we're installing a whole operating system,
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so this is going to take a while.
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Make sure you have about 50 minutes of
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free time to download this.
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For me, I'm going to make sure my language is English,
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United States for my location,
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American English, that might be different for you.
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I'm going to click out of this warning message.
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Now by default,
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the host name is Kali.
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In this case, let's name it cybrary.
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Don't worry about domain name, just click "Continue".
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For my username, I'm going to use
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my hacker name, Cyberninja.
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It'll ask for it again.
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I'm going to enter my password.
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I'm not going to tell you that one.
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Eastern US, of course,
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this may be different for you.
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I'm going to use Guided: use entire disk,
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SCSE1, all files in one partition,
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finish partitioning and write changes to disk.
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Write the changes to disk,
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I'm going to go yes and click "Continue".
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Now it's going to install the base system.
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This might take a while,
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so I'm going to pause the video.
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For software selection, I'm going to
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use these defaults and click "Continue".
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Again, this is going to take a while,
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so I'm going to pause the video again.
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So install the GRUB bootloader.
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We will make sure we have yes, click "Continue".
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Go down to dev sda, click "Continue".
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Now it's finishing the installation.
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Now we're going to
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click "Continue", installation is complete.
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Now if we're lucky, we should see our Kali VM boot up.
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It's always nice seeing that Kali dragon.
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Our username is going to be what we said
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before, mine was Cyberninja.
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Hopefully you remember your password.
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Now you should be able to resize your window because
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the Guest Edition should be installed
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by default in VirtualBox.
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You can resize your window, you can maximize it.
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But here we are successfully
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installing Kali Linux in VirtualBox.
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That's the more difficult way to do it.
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I'm going to show you the easier way now.
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I'm at the Download Kali Linux Virtual Images.
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These are custom images.
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I want to make sure I go to Kali Linux VirtualBox Images
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, there's also VMware.
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I chose the 64 bit OVA,
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and we'll go back in here to Oracle VirtualBox Manager.
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What we would want to do is import that image.
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I'll import the appliance.
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I'm going to go to the OVA that I downloaded,
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click "Continue" and you'll
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see it already adds all the configuration details here.
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Click "Import", "Agree".
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As opposed to the other install,
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this one takes a lot less time,
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but I'm going to pause the video here.
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Now if we click "Start" here,
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we'll see we get an error.
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Let's read why.
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So implementation of the USB
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2.0 controller was not found.
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If we go into Settings,
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go into Ports,
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and USB, and you can see it's 2.0.
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Let's make that 1.1 and
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let's start this again and see what happens.
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You can see that fixed the error.
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These images have user Kali and
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password Kali as default
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as opposed to the other installation,
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where you got to set your username and password.
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If I enter Kali and Kali,
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we should be able to log in.
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Now we're going to mess with
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virtual machines a lot more,
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so I'm going to save a lot more detail until later.
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But you can see those are basically the two ways
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to install the Kali Linux VM.
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Another good practice is to make a snapshot of your VM.
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This just basically allows you,
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if something happens to your VM,
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to go back in time and go back to that snapshot.
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It does take up some memory,
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so be careful with how many snapshots you make.
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But if you successfully install your Kali VM,
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you might want to go ahead and make a snapshot
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just in case if something breaks later on.
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Some best practices: take frequent snapshots of
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your VM so you can revert it if something happens,
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because this is Linux, you're going to want to update and
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upgrade your VM frequently,
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your Kali VM, decide if you want to use the root user.
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The users that we saw back
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there with Kali and Cyberninja,
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those are non-root users,
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so you have to use sudo a lot to
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do with superuser permissions.
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The older Kali VMs had root by default.
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That's how I have mine configured is just using root.
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It can be riskier because there's a lot more at stake,
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running things as the root user.
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Make sure that Guest Edition is installed.
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It does that by default with the ISO and the OVA file.
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You also want to make sure you set your shell,
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your terminal to infinite scroll.
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I think it sets it at 1,000 by default.
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But a lot of these tools that we'll be running will be
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lines and lines and lines and lines
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and the terminal and will cut off.
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It's always a good idea to set
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your terminal shell to an infinite scroll.
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In summary, we covered understanding
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the types of virtual machine software
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that's available to run Kali Linux.
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Now you should know how to download Kali Linux
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and run it in VirtualBox,
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and we also explained some of
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the Kali Linux best practices.
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