one of the functions often operating system is to provide an interface between the user on
Now, if you're wondering, why do we need an operating system
to a computer? The world is binary,
all those components. They will operate in finery. And what's binary? Binary is accounting system that only has two digits, zeros and ones.
So if you were ever to peer into the components,
this is what you would see. Your to ones and zeros flying around
and all the data that you store, whether it's a picture or a video or ah music file
or gets converted into binary ultimately and stored like that. This is also how information is transmitted across the network.
For example, if you are streaming a movie across the Internet,
this is what's actually going down the cable ones and zeroes. And then they're all being reconstructed into the actual picture and sound that you hear on the picture that you see
even worse than that,
issuing instructions to the computer to make it do things.
Occupant Lee has to be done in finery,
and this is called machine code.
That's the if you like the native language of computing devices.
this is why one reason why we need an operating system if you have to deal with everything is ones and zeros.
It's not very user friendly. Imagine having to issue all your instructions using machine code
or trying to understand the data when it's been converted to binary and looks like this.
Fortunately, operating systems provide a user friendly interface that humans could use to interact with their computing hardware.
With operating systems like Windows, you could simply use a mouse and a keyboard to issue commands without having to know anything about binary
in the background. Your operating system interpret your actions and generates the commands that are required.
For example, to start a program,
you just point and click in Windows.
I don't need to know any binary or any other instructions. So
so now let's look at how users can interact with the operating system.
There are basically two types of interface is available.
There is a command line interface
on there is a graphical interface,
by the way, sometimes you hear the term shell used to describe the type of interface.
Let's look a TTE command line interface is first as historically. There came first.
A couple of the earliest operating systems were you Necks on DOS.
Both presented the user with a command line interface.
Once you have started your computer,
you would see a command prompt and a flashing cursor,
That's all there is.
So you have to learn and know the commands that you were going to type it.
You have to type them in using your keyboard,
and you couldn't make mistakes.
If you made a mistake, you might get an error message like this,
It's better than machine code, right?
Imagine having to do all of this with Ones and zeros Wells. This is obviously a huge step above that that you can type in English sounding words that commands, and you can use that to manipulate the system.
Starting in the 19 eighties, though, we started to see the emergence of graphical operating systems.
the acronym G u I is commonly pronounced gooey by the way
examples of graphical operating systems today include Microsoft's windows on apples with *** and, of course, Android and IOS as well.
Not that some operating systems such as Lennox
can have either type of interface.
Lennox was originally designed with a command line interface,
but today many people have developed graphical shelves for you. Lennox
Moral. Not a bit later, we'll come back to limits.
the first commercially successful operating system with a gooey was produced by Apple in 1984 and known as Mac OS.
Not that it's latest version is known as OSX.
This is the operating system that runs on Apple's laptops and desktop computers
not far behind Apple Waas Microsoft
in 1985. A year later,
Microsoft introduced Windows.
Today, Windows dominates the market for laptops and desktop computers, something like 95% of the world's peces
run some version of Windows
that this environment,
where you have Windows on icons and menus on pointers
sometimes called whip
graphical operating systems, are present programs and files like documents as icons on the screen
menus can pop up. So if you right click on the file menu pops up
and you can choose a command from the venue,
you can also click on an icon to start a program.
Each program runs inside a box known as a window,
users can drag the windows around the screen to arrange them. How they, like, put them behind each other or in front of each other
on when I use is finished. She could simply close the window to terminate the program,
although these days we associate buoys with Apple or Microsoft or Google.
The Whip concept was originally developed by Xerox
in 1973 Zeros produced the Xerox Alto,
the first computer with the Gooey.
Though the system never reached commercial production, Apple was the first to actually get something onto the market.
The latest operating systems, such as IOS, Android and Windows 10
or support a touch interface.
You can use your finger on a touch sensitive screen to interact with the device.
Touch interface is most commonly are implemented on smartphones and tablets, although these days you also starting to see a lot of them on laptops as well.