RAM

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Time
8 hours 53 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
11
Video Transcription
00:00
let's move on and look at storage. So we're going to look both that volatile storage that is RAM and non volatile storage such as CDs, DVDs and hard drives.
00:13
So looking at Dr First,
00:17
the type of Orion Muse currently is called SD RAM, which stands for synchronous dynamic graham.
00:24
It is so called because with the first generation of brand modules, clock cycles were not synchronized with that of the CPU,
00:32
and this resulted in delays in getting data in and out of RAM.
00:36
Since the introduction of SD Rhyme,
00:39
it has evolved into ever faster versions.
00:42
DD Hour roughly doubled the effective speed of memory
00:46
dd out to effectively doubled the speed of DD our and saw.
00:51
There is also a smaller form factor for memory modules called S O Dim.
00:57
This is designed for the much smaller space available in laptops.
01:03
As I mentioned earlier, the sockets for the memory modules have plastic clips on either side
01:08
that lock the models in place as you pushed them into the slot.
01:19
Now, just because I module physically fits into a socket
01:23
should not be taken to me that they are all interchangeable.
01:26
Memory modules will only fit in the slot design for that type of memory.
01:30
DDR two is physically different from D. D. L three, for example.
01:36
But even if it fits,
01:38
you still have to verify that the motherboard supports the type of module.
01:42
For example, there is such a thing as error correcting RAM called E C C Ram,
01:48
and there is another type called buffered or registered memory,
01:51
and many of other boards do not support these.
01:56
There may also be restriction in the bios of the computer as to how much memory is supported in total.
02:02
And your operating system may also place a limit on how much memories supported.
02:07
For example, if you install 32 bit windows,
02:12
it can only use four gigabytes of rap
02:14
regardless of how much RAM you actually install on the motherboard.
02:21
Now let's take a look at mass storage devices such as hard discs and DVDs.
02:24
And remember, these are non volatile, so the data is not lost when you turn off the power.
02:36
One type of removable mass storage are optical discs, such a CDs or DVDs.
02:43
Optical drives used the same power and data connectors as hard disks.
02:51
You'll need two cables, one that powers the drive and one for the data connection.
03:00
Hard disks come in three standard sizes.
03:02
3.5 inch disks are typically installed in desktop computers
03:07
for laptops to smaller sizes are available to 0.5 inch, and 1.8 inch
03:17
hard disk can provide many terabytes of storage.
03:22
Currently, four terabyte hard disks are starting to become common and retail for around $100.
03:29
Hard disk consists of metallic platters that spinning at a fast rate.
03:32
There is an arm that moves across the platters and can read and write data to the platters
03:38
that head floats above the platter on a hard knock to the disc and make it hit the platter and damage it
03:45
so hard. Disks are relatively fragile and easy to damage.
03:50
Note, by the way, that we are showing you the insides of a hard disk.
03:53
But if you were to open up the hard disk like this,
03:57
that would void the warranty, and more importantly, it may allow tiny bits of dust to get in between the head and the platter,
04:04
scratching the platter.
04:06
Normally, hard disk has a tiny hole to allow Aaron, but through a filter that keeps out the dust.
04:15
Consumer level hard disks spin at 5400 revolutions per minute or rpm's
04:20
premium hard disks for workstations. Spend at 7200 rpm,
04:26
but at the server and you can get disks that can spin a 10,000 rpm and even 15,000 rpm.
04:32
And generally speaking, the faster the platter spins, the faster you can read and write data to the desk.
04:43
Solid state drives have no moving parts and so are not as fragile as mechanical drives.
04:49
Instead, they stored data in non volatile memory.
04:55
SST is also its tail. ST. Discs are silent because there are no moving parts.
05:00
They use less power than mechanical hard disks
05:03
on our very fast compared to mechanical drives.
05:08
So why don't we just use SS days all the time?
05:12
Because
05:13
they are much more expensive per megabyte than mechanical drives.
05:17
Eventually, though, they should become cheaper than mechanical drives.
05:21
SST is come in many different form factors. Some are just circuit boards, and this is called M too.
05:29
But they are also available in the same form factors as mechanical hard disks, 3.5 inch, 2.5 inch and 1.8 Ege,
05:38
so therefore they can fit in the same bays as a mechanical heart desk,
05:42
and they used the same connectors as mechanical heart discs.
05:48
Now, as far as these connectors go,
05:51
the original type of connector was called I D E.
05:55
This was this is today considered a legacy connection method.
06:00
This is also known as a ta advanced technology attachment or even P a T A parallel.
06:08
So with this, you had the socket that you can see up there in the motherboard,
06:14
and then the blue end of the cable here would plug into that socket
06:18
at the other end of the socket,
06:20
there were usually too connectors.
06:23
So this means that single cable
06:25
coming from a single port
06:27
could actually support to drives rather than just one Dr.
06:35
But the latest technology is Satya Serial advanced Technology attachment.
06:42
Most storage devices today connect using satya sockets on the motherboard.
06:46
So here you can see the six black sockets. They are Satur socket,
06:53
and that's what a satyr cable looks like. An Assad, a connector that plugs into those sockets.
07:01
Mass storage devices are powered by cables coming from the power supply,
07:06
so I d drives the older technology
07:10
uses what I called Molex connectors. So that's that white plug you see with four pins in it,
07:16
and Sutter drives used the Sutter Power connectors.
07:21
Now, if your computer doesn't have the right type of connector for the type of Dr you're trying to install, you can get converted cables.
07:29
For example, you can get a cable that converts from Molex to the Sutter Power connector.
07:34
So let's have a look at installing a couple of drives.
07:40
I pulled out the cables out of the computer case to show you more clearly.
07:45
Here is an old I D. Drive. There is the power connection socket.
07:49
There is my cable.
07:53
So I'm plugging in the data cable now,
07:57
and
07:59
there's the Molex Power connector.
08:01
So we plugged that in into the appropriate socket,
08:07
and now we can physically installed the disc in a drive baby.
08:18
And here is the newer Sutter
08:22
interface on a desk.
08:26
So here's my satyr power collector,
08:30
and this just plugs into the appropriate slot
08:33
and there is the Satya data connector.
08:39
Having connected those, I simply have to again install it into an appropriate bait
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