Hello. Welcome back to domain to where we're looking at a hardware,
and we're now in unit 2.3.
In this camp. He asks us to identify the purpose of internal computer components.
So we're gonna look at the motherboard, the main circuit board you find inside a PC.
The CPU, the processor, the pile supply
ram. That's memory and storage.
We'll also look at expansion cards and cooling within a PC,
looking first at the motherboard.
So what is the motherboard?
It's a the main circuit board found inside the computer, sometimes called the main board,
has wiring printed on it to link together the CPU, RAM and other internal components.
Many of these components are soldered on onto the circuit board and cannot be easily removed or replaced
in order to allow for replaceable devices. There are sockets that are soldered into the motherboard, including a socket for your CPU
expansion slots for adding expansion cards and RAM slots for adding memory.
These replaceable parts are called fr use field replaceable units, so that includes the rhyme, the CPU, the expansion card but also the power supply on any storage devices. You have such a hard drives or CD or DVD drives.
The motherboard is a large printed circuit board that holds the core components inside the computer.
that row of white sockets are the expansion slots.
These were used to expand the capabilities of the computer by installing additional components,
such as a network card or video adapter card.
You might do that because your motherboard doesn't have those capabilities built in
or because you want to upgrade from the basic features built into the motherboard.
For example, the video capabilities of the motherboard are probably not as powerful as a separate video adapter card.
is present to support the real time clock built into the motherboard.
That's how your computer keeps track of the time and the date
at the back of the motherboard. We have the various ports.
So which port you actually get depends on what capabilities are built into the motherboard.
So you will typically have USB ports so you can plug in external devices.
You will have a video port so you can plug in a display
on sound ports so you can plug in speakers and microphone.
There may well be other ports, but as I said, it depends on what capabilities are built into the motherboard.
The socket fall. The CPU
is a large white socket that you see on the motherboard.
There are also slot for memory modules.
Notice the clips at the ends of the sockets.
When the memory module is pressed into place,
they lock it into place.
In the early days of Peces, there were no clips, and the models could slowly work their way out of the sockets.
This was due to the expansion and contraction that happened when the computer got warm and when it was being used
and then cool down when it wasn't being used.
is where the power cable coming out of the back of the power supply plugs into the motherboard.
It provides three voltages to the motherboard,
12 votes, five volts and 3.3 votes.
These different voltages are required by the different components on the motherboard.
There are some standard industry standard sizes for the motherboard.
This ensures that the motherboard fits in standard cases.
I know that some vendors produced their mother boards with different sizes and shapes, and that's because they're deviating from these standards and creating proprietary motherboard Zane proprietary cases.
Now let's look at cooling
as a minimum. You will see one fan built into the power supply.
Apart from that, though, there may be other fans built into the case to help to keep it cool.
And if we look inside it,
there is typically a fan sitting over the CPU,
and that is keeping the process. Are cool
It's a liquid coolant. Cooling works rather like the cooling system for a car engine.
Liquid flows around and collects heat from various components.
The liquid is carried to a radiator, and then a fan blows the heat away by blowing air across the radiator.
Now, why would you need this? Because some enthusiast, particularly those who play games on their computers, may over clock their systems,
that is, they run the components that speeds faster than recommended by the manufacturers
running the CPU and memory. Controllers at a faster speed
speeds up the system but generates extra heat.
When components get too hot, it can destabilize the system, causing crashes or unexpected shutdowns.
provides highly efficient cooling,
but there are other advantages to liquid cooling.
It is quieter than all those fans that are otherwise needed.
On the other hand, it's more complex and expensive than air cooling.
Most of us do not need this type of cooling as we don't over clock our systems.
Let's talk in a bit more detail about power supplies
like motherboards. Power supplies also come in industry standard sizes and shapes, and they're designed to fit into standard sized cases.
There are multiple cables coming out of the back of the power supply to provide power to the motherboard,
but also to other drives, like your hard disk on your DVD drive.
If you are replacing a power supply,
check how many watts of power it is rated for.
It must be high enough to support all the devices installed in the computer.
It should be rated the same as the power supply you're replacing
or provide greater amounts of what's
you can see on the motherboard,
the 20 or 24 pin socket
And then this cable comes out of the back of the power supply,
and it plugs into that socket
when you're pushing it and make sure clicks into place securely.
We'll come back later to look at the other power chords that come out and a plugged into storage devices like hard drives and CDs.
The only real configuration you might have to do is to
change the input voltage for the power supply.
The mains voltage in the U. S. Is not the same as it is in other countries, necessarily. For example, in Europe, the mains voltage is twice as high as in the U. S.
So some power supplies are designed to work in many different countries, in which case they have this small switch at the back.
And you can slide that to choose the correct voltage.
If you move a computer safe from the US to Europe,
you have to be very careful. And you pay attention to this to make sure that that switches switched over.
Because if you leave it set to 110 volts
and then you take it to Europe and plug it in
the double, the voltage coming in through the mains will blow the power supply, So that's a little dangerous.
Apart from that, all you have to do is plug in the power cable here and then plug that into the mains.
And when you switch on your computer. What should happen is the fan should spin.
That indicates you have power and everything is working.
Now. If you need to replace the power supply
first unplug it from the mains,
then undo the four screws that hold it in place.
Don't forget to unplug the cables at the back of the power supply, which are currently plugged into the motherboard and the various drives.
The power supply should now just slide out.
If a power supplies Fawlty. If it should be replaced,
you should never attempt to open it up and try to fix it yourself.
There are dangerous voltages inside that power supply unit,
the CPU or central processing Unit or process. Sir
plugs into the CPU socket on the motherboard and is designed to be replaceable or upgradeable.
But you must ensure compatibility.
So not every mother board supports every CPU.
There are two major vendors for CP Use Intel and A M D.
And certainly if I'd motherboard is designed for Intel, CPU and AM DCP, you will not fit in it and vice versa.
even within the same brand,
like if you are trying upgrade from an Intel CPU to another Intel CPU
that may or may not be supported by the chips on the motherboard.
So you need to check with computer vendor that they actually do support. This.
The earliest CP use had pins sticking out from underneath. Um,
these pins were easily bent.
To make matters worse, the sockets had tight holds for those pins so that they were gripped securely and a good electrical contact was made.
So you had to use force to push the CPU into the socket.
But if you did not carefully aligned the pins with the holes before pushing the CPU in
the pin's could get bent or even broken off.
And that would mean junking the CPU.
The first industry response to this was the introduction off Ziff Sockets.
Ziff stands for zero insertion force
In these types of sockets. The holes were not tight
on. The CPU would easily drop into place. No force was required.
Then you would move a lever in the socket that would apply pressure to depends to hold them in place.
This was better than the first type of socket,
but still it was possible to bend pins,
so a new solution was devised.
The latest types of sockets R L g a sockets.
Here, the pin here. The pins are safely inside the socket.
The CPU just has contacts on it. No pins.
In this case, the CPU is just dropped into the socket,
and a hinged metal cover is placed over the CPU,
and then you move a lever, and that locks it into place and ensures that the CPU contacts are pushing against the pins in the socket.
So let's have a look at your removing and replacing. The CPU
CPU is usually hidden behind a heat sink and a fan and possibly a hood.
So here I am on screwing the hood and the fan
and then unplugging the cable
that connects that powers the fine.
If you look at the back of this, you'll see there's the all aluminum heat sink,
and on there you could just see there is some thermal compound,
so that is used to help conduct heat from the CPU to the heat sink.
So now I can move the lever and flip open the cover
and take out the CPU
turn around. You'll see that there are only contacts and no pins. There
there are pins sticking out for each contact on the CPU.
So now we just reversed those steps to in green stole the CPU.
What you should do, though, is scrape off the old thermal compound and squeeze some new thermal compound on before putting the heat sink onto the CPU
that ensures good conductive ity off heat from the CPU to the heat sink.