Lesson 1 - Virtual Machine Files

Video Activity

Virtual Machine Files This lesson discusses virtual machine files of which there are many types: vmx vswp nvram vmware vmtx Raw dev. Rdm.vmdk Disk desc.vmdk Disk data.rat.vmdk vmss Snapshot data.vmsd Snapshot state.vmsn Snapshot disk.delta.vmdk

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Time
14 hours 13 minutes
Difficulty
Intermediate
CEU/CPE
20
Video Description

Virtual Machine Files This lesson discusses virtual machine files of which there are many types:

  • vmx

  • vswp

  • nvram

  • vmware

  • vmtx

  • Raw dev. Rdm.vmdk

  • Disk desc.vmdk

  • Disk data.rat.vmdk

  • vmss

  • Snapshot data.vmsd

  • Snapshot state.vmsn

  • Snapshot disk.delta.vmdk

Video Transcription
00:04
Welcome to cyber ery. I'm Dean Camp you, Leo. And this is lesson one for module three
00:09
in the V M, where
00:11
installation, configuration and management course.
00:16
All right, so we're talking about a lot of different concepts for virtual machines.
00:20
We'll be describing the different components that are available through virtual hardware
00:26
and looking at the different files and how the hardware actually works.
00:31
So, for instance,
00:33
if you look at our virtual machine files, they have a lot of different things here.
00:37
Once you build a virtual machine, typically all the files are created in one folder. This makes managing virtual machines very easy. Actually,
00:47
you can just copy the folder as needed
00:50
to move it around. Or thio using a different system
00:55
much different than dealing with a physical machine, where you have to copy
01:00
hundreds, maybe even thousands of folders
01:03
and different foul systems to replicate that machines function somewhere else
01:07
but the virtual environment. We just have one folder
01:11
within that folder. We have several pieces. Your configuration file.
01:15
We'll have a dot BMX extension.
01:19
So whatever the name of your V m. Is,
01:23
you know, for instance, of'em one,
01:26
I am one of the M X would be your configuration file.
01:30
And just like a physical
01:33
server where you have swap files
01:36
to deal with memory problems, you have the same thing in the B M world,
01:42
so we would see the M one dot V S w p for virtual swap.
01:48
There's also a BIOS file,
01:52
and we know that bio settings let you control different aspects of other machine boots. It's some of its hardware capabilities and so on.
02:01
Then we have a log file.
02:04
So be aware. Got log
02:06
would be in the same folder as B. M one.
02:09
If the BM one was created from a template
02:14
or if you had a template to create this particular VM,
02:17
you might have a file vm one dot b m t X.
02:22
This would probably be in a different location than some of the other VM files that pertain to this particular VM.
02:30
We organized things
02:30
in such a way so that your templates are kept separate so they don't become confused with the actual BM configuration files.
02:40
In an upcoming lab. We'll see how we can use a raw device mapping. That's what the R. D. M stands for here.
02:47
So if I had a raw device mapped
02:50
storage
02:52
for VM one, I would see VM one are vehement. Dash RTM dot virtual machine disk file
03:02
Your disk descriptor is dot b m d k.
03:08
So the M one doubt the M v k.
03:12
The descriptor file contains sort of the metadata for the virtual desk.
03:16
How many cylinders? How many heads and some of the other characteristics. It doesn't contain the actual data.
03:25
This is a little bit of a point of confusion.
03:29
For instance, if you browse a data store
03:31
from within V center
03:34
and you see the doc BND k file,
03:37
it will actually appear to be the data file.
03:40
It'll, for instance, if you're just was three gigabytes
03:44
the dot b m one of the M d K would be three gigabytes,
03:46
but truly the actual data is in the VM one dash flat,
03:53
not the M p. K.
03:55
If you go into your host
03:58
or the day of store from the command line and look in the folder, all these files are you would see that this is the one that's actually three gigabytes, so it's a little bit confusing
04:08
if you're just browsing a day of store food from within the center. It will always be the dot PM decay that has the data.
04:14
It's just a pointer to it
04:15
s o. If you're comparing those two situations, that's that's what to be aware of their
04:24
If you suspend a BM
04:26
for instance, by hitting the pause button,
04:30
we're effectively stopping it from processing.
04:31
You'll get a dot B m ss file created with, of course your name.
04:36
If I take a snapshot,
04:39
the snapshot data
04:41
will be in dock B. M s de
04:46
allow. These are pretty self explanatory is far the name of the extension.
04:50
The state of the snapshot is a V m s n
04:55
Soviet snapshot state
05:00
and then lastly,
05:01
snapshot disc
05:03
is your bm name Dash Delta got the m d. K.
05:11
You might be wondering what snapshots are will cover that
05:13
in a later lab.
05:16
So I mentioned browsing a data store. You'll see this,
05:20
and you will be something that you'll be doing regularly. When you're managing virtual environments,
05:25
I can connect to a virtual machine
05:27
and see what data store it's. It's files are located on.
05:30
I can also connect to a host and see what data stores are attached to that host,
05:38
and then you simply right click on one of the data stores, and you can browse it.
05:42
And once you're browsing of data story could do things like uploading files, downloading files, creating folders. It works a lot like Windows Explorer.
05:51
There's also a tab, which you'll see once you get connected to be center. That lets you look at your storage views,
05:58
and this lets you see
06:00
your storage in a different context
06:02
on. We'll even see some other options later in the course where you can draw maps or the the the center will draw a map for you, showing what the host is connected to us. Faras networks storage other hosts on and so on.
06:17
And
06:18
as us also see in the next lab, when you right click out of'em in the inventory, you could open a console,
06:26
and that's sort of what I did in the in the little video you saw where I demonstrated the features of the D. C. Why
06:33
so being able to open a council directly from the virtual machine in the inventory is a nice future?
06:39
You can, of course, use something like remote desktop if you wish,
06:44
so you can connect to a virtual machine the same way you would connect any other Windows
06:50
system, whether it's a workstation or server.
06:55
But the council is nice because it's more portable, and you can have many of them open at the same time.
07:00
Okay, we onto our virtual machine hardware.
07:04
We have a lot of different things to consider here,
07:08
starting off with the basics keyboard and mouse.
07:12
So the virtual machine hardware or the virtual hardware, if you will,
07:16
allows you to interact with physical devices and then virtual eyes is the commands of the instructions you're giving so that the virtual machine itself can take action.
07:29
So I used my physical keyboard. The virtual harbor translates to keep presses so that the VM can get those commands.
07:36
I can have an I D controller hooked up to mine.
07:41
It could be on my physical host,
07:43
and then the virtual hardware will translate those instructions so the virtual machine can use an I D device.
07:49
I could also have up to 10 different
07:53
network interface cards,
07:56
and the different types of interface cards have some interesting characteristics. For instance, V. Lance
08:03
is one of your choices. This is has a lot of compatibility for 32 bit operating systems.
08:09
Quite often, you want to pick the mxnet
08:13
for performance reasons.
08:16
This is not compatible with every operating system, but should be compatible with most Windows and Linux flavors that you might come across.
08:24
Then there's also the 1000 or E 1000 e,
08:28
which gives high performance for network cards.
08:31
But again, there are some compatibility considerations to take to take into account.
08:37
And then, if you use ah, be mxnet to RV mxnet three as your interface your network interface cards, you must have the, um where tools installed.
08:48
And that's something that
08:50
we'll talk about a little bit later as well.
08:52
In a nutshell. Veum, where Tools is a collection of utilities that gives your virtual machine better performance, especially as it relates to moving the mouse
09:01
and, uh, and other graphics options.
09:05
It also supports things like snapshots, which will get into a little bit later.
09:11
All right, so 10 10 network cards pretty pretty generous there.
09:13
I could also utilize a three D graphics card. So, for instance, if your host has an NVIDIA
09:22
graphics card,
09:22
you can utilize some of the three D functions and the hardware, too.
09:28
Thio give you better performance for your three D applications within the BM,
09:31
so that means that if you're doing
09:35
three D graphics or other kinds of maybe video editing that kind of thing,
09:41
the hardware
09:43
on your host can be utilized from the virtual machine to give you a boost in performance.
09:50
The current version of Virtual Harmer supports up to one terabyte of RAM.
09:54
That's a tremendous amount of memory for a
09:58
for virtual machine to have all to itself. But it is possible
10:01
we can also use up to 64 Virtual CP use on one virtual machine
10:07
so you can imagine the possibilities. If you had a very powerful server
10:11
and you wanted to build some clusters, you could mix and match some of these capabilities to give you the performance characteristics you're looking for.
10:20
We can have up to four schedule controllers attached
10:24
each scuzzy controller. Typically, king service up to 16 devices,
10:31
so that's a lot of disk that you can attach to.
10:33
You can also have a floppy controller with two devices,
10:37
so if you had a need to use floppies and you're
10:41
your host had a floppy drive attached to have up to two of those, you could put a floppy into the drive and have it
10:48
get virtually attached to the virtual machine.
10:50
Same thing with USB devices. Up to 20 of those are possible.
10:54
I could have four serial ports,
10:58
so if you have cereal devices attached to your host, your virtual machines can attach to them, using the virtual hardware again to give them access.
11:07
Up to three parallel ports are also possible.
11:09
So if you've got things like plotters and printers,
11:13
uh, in serial parallel configuration, you should be able to use them from a virtual machine by just setting the parameters correctly when you go to at your settings within that b. M.
11:26
So regarding the storage, I mentioned being able to browse the data store.
11:31
These are some of the parameters that you would see in a typical data store,
11:35
if you would. If you look at it, we know that it's got a certain size in this case, four gigabytes.
11:41
Give it a unique name
11:43
such as my V M. F s.
11:45
And it's very trivial to rename a day the story. You just right click it and select rename from the drop down menu.
11:52
We can also pick the storage adapter.
11:54
There are several different choices here
11:58
para virtual one L s. I logic sass is another. We don't go into too much detail in this class about the different choices.
12:05
But much like the network cards, we can pick the adapter That gives us the best performance for the operating system that's running on that virtual machine.
12:16
We know that we have a disk file
12:18
of the VM named Avi Mdk. Remember, this is just the descriptor. This file,
12:24
the actual data is in the host one dash flat, not be MDK.
12:31
We know that the disk mode
12:33
will tell us, for instance, if snapshots are allowed,
12:35
if the disk is an independent mode or in persistent mode, that changes whether or not snapshots are possible.
12:43
If if you want to use your disk and non persistent mode, for instance,
12:48
that means that
12:48
you might have a V M that you want to do some testing with
12:52
and you might want to make changes.
12:54
And every time you use that B m, you want to be able to go back to the original configuration it had when you boot it up.
13:01
In that case, you use non persistent disc
13:03
that we know the changes are written to the desk.
13:05
If you's a persistent disk now, the changes are written directly
13:09
to the to the disk storage media the same way that would be for a typical physical server,
13:15
huh?
13:16
So snapshots are
13:18
Onley allowed in the case of Of, uh, using the persistent mode.
13:24
And then we have this provisioning, which will cover in a later section.
13:28
In this case,
13:28
the provisioning mode was thin
13:31
and thin. Provisioning means that
13:33
if I've got a four gigabyte disk,
13:35
if I deploy it and thin provisioning mode it creates a distance
13:41
descriptor file. It creates a little bit of data in the file.
13:46
But if I were to go to browse the data store, I would see that that the provision size of before gigabytes but the actual size on the disk would be very small. It might just be a couple 100 kilobytes.
13:56
Thin provisioning is very quick.
14:00
That means that if I develop or if I deploy a V m the storage
14:05
virtual diskettes created,
14:07
but it only grows as needed and we'll cover some of the other options, like thick provisioning lazy zero Think provisioning, eager zeroed.
14:15
So at this point, you should be able to describe the files that comprise your BM.
14:20
We have, ah, look at the different types of hardware
14:22
that are available to A B M through the virtual hardware
14:26
mechanism.
14:28
And then we explored some of the more detailed parameters forgiven Data store.
14:35
So that is the end of
14:37
Lesson one for Module three.
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