Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS PUB140-2)

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Time
12 hours 57 minutes
Difficulty
Intermediate
CEU/CPE
13
Video Transcription
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>> We've talked about how encryption
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>> is an essential strategy for protecting
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>> data in Cloud environments.
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>> But how can you be sure that
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the hardware and software
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>> used to enforce these encryption schemes
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>> is in itself secure?
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>> Well, that's really where the FIPS
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140-2 standard comes in.
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In this lesson, we're going to talk about
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the FIPS standard and its role in encryption,
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the different levels of the FIPS standard,
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as well as the process for having
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a piece of hardware or software
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>> meet the 140-2 standard.
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>> The FIPS 140-2 standard
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>> is really the standard set
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>> by the US government
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>> for approving cryptographic modules.
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>> Cryptography is the study of rendering
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information unreadable
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>> if intercepted by an adversary.
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>> The algorithms that are developed
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>> in cryptography are used to enforce
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>> encryption and encrypt data.
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>> FIPS has a distinction here between
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systems that are FIPS compliant
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versus those that are FIPS validated.
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A system that's compliant may meet 1-4 level scheme,
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but a validated system is one that's actually tested.
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FIPS 104-2 level 1 provides
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>> the lowest level of security.
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>> No specific physical security mechanisms
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are required in security level 1,
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cryptographic modules beyond the basic requirements
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for production grade components.
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Level 2, on the other hand,
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improves upon the physical security
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>> mechanism of the first level,
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>> because the cryptographic module
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>> requires features that show evidence of tampering,
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>> meaning if something shows up,
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if someone attempted to manipulate
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>> or mess with the integrity to the device.
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>> Security level 3,
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attempts to prevent an intruder
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>> from gaining access to
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>> the critical security parameters
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held within the cryptographic module.
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Level 4 takes it, of course,
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>> a level further and provides
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>> the highest level of security.
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>> At this security level,
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>> the physical security mechanisms
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>> provide complete envelope of protection
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>> around the cryptographic module,
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and the intent is of detecting
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>> and responding to any unauthorized
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>> attempts at physical access.
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>> Penetration of the cryptographic module
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>> enclosure for any direction
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>> has a high probability of being detected
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>> and results in the immediate
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>> deletion of the plain text.
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>> Quick question, which FIPS 140-2 level
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prevents intruders from accessing the CSP,
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but does not delete the CSP
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>> upon detecting a penetration?
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>> Level 2, level 3 or level 4?
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If you said Level 3, you're correct.
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Level 2, that shows a certain degree of tampering,
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>> it detects tampering.
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>> Level 4, upon detection of a penetration or intrusion,
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deletes the clear text within
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>> the cryptographic module.
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>> We talked about the FIPS standard,
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about how it really sets
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the US government standard
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for approving cryptographic modules.
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We talked about the difference between
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>> devices being compliant versus validated.
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>> We talked about the four different levels.
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Now, by insisting or following up on this standard,
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you can really identify whether
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>> there are potential risks
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>> in terms of the strength of the security
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>> of your underlying hardware or software
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>> used to enforce encryption in your Cloud environments.
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>> See you in the next lesson.
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