# Algorithms and Keys

Video Activity
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Time
15 hours 43 minutes
Difficulty
CEU/CPE
16
Video Transcription
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>> In continuing on exploring
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the elements of that conceptual formula
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I gave you a little bit ago,
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where we said plain text plus an
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initialization vector and algorithm and a key,
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will give you ciphertext.
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In the last section, we talked about
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initialization vector.
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Let's go ahead and take a look at
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the algorithms and the key.
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Two separate pieces here,
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the algorithm itself and then
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the key that's going to help us
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figure out how to use the algorithm.
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Now, if you take a look at this particular screen,
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I have some math functions
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here in the middle of the screen.
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Now I don't know if I've mentioned to you all,
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but I grew up in North Carolina,
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which means a Greensboro, North Carolina specifically,
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which means I am the proud product
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of the North Carolina Public
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School System,36 then the nation baby,
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that is our claim to fame, go North Carolina.
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What that means is out of
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all my years in the North Carolina Public School System,
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what you see on the screen, these functions,
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this is the only math I've learned.
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It's the only math I can perform.
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I can take any number and add two,
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I can take any number and subtract two.
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I can take any number and multiply
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by two, divide by two.
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I can raise to the power of two,
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or I can take the square root of,
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but there is nothing else I can do.
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These are the math functions I can perform.
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That is Kelly's algorithm.
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Kelly's algorithm contains a set
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of math and when you think about it,
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everything that we do with our computer systems
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all comes down to numbers, ones and zeros.
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Many algorithms will take
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these ones and zeros, these numbers,
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chunk them into sets called block and
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each block is put through a series of
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math functions or substitution happens.
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I take this value and I raise it to the power of two,
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I get a new value to replace, to substitute with.
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Basically, this stream of characters,
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all of these ones and zeros chunked into blocks.
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Each of these math functions is usually
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referred to as an S box,
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not an X box,
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but an S box substitution box.
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That at each substitution box,
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some math function is performed.
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With my algorithms,
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algorithms should be strong and complex.
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If for instance, if you look at the screen,
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my math function is not strong,
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not a lot of complexity there.
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Kelly's algorithm would be broken in
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a matter of seconds if even that long,
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I need good, strong math.
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I need complexity in my math.
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As a matter of fact,
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there was a gentleman named
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Kirchhoff, I forget what his first name is,
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but there's Kirchhoff's principle that says,
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You know why? Because maybe somebody that
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wasn't from the North Carolina Public School System
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could come in and say,
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this is weak map.
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Let's make it a little stronger.
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Let's add these variables and let's increase
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these functions and these features.
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Kirchhoff's principle says, if
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you get peer review.
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You get the strength of the cryptographic community.
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Not only can they break your algorithms,
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but they'll put it back together much
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stronger and that's desirable.
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Remember, ISC square favors openness on the exam.
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I think what you'll see is a real trend on
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the exam that if you have to choose between
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a proprietary algorithm where the vendor
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hides the math versus an open algorithm,
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they're almost always going to choose the open algorithm
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as being the desirable option.
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The math functions, that's your algorithm.
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Now, which math function to use?
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In what order?
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How many math functions to use?
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That's all determined by the key.
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Go to function 1, then function 3,
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then function 6,
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then function 5, then function 1.
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That's what the key indicates.
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Now we have to make sure our key is
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random and it can't just be function 1.
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Our key has to be protected because that's the secrecy.
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Earlier when we talked about secrets being exchanged,
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we were really talking about the key.
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The key is the secret on how to use
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the math and especially
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with Kirchhoff's principle in place.
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Remember Kirchhoff said, let the algorithm be made known.
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Well, if the algorithm is known,
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then you absolutely better secure the key.
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The key should be protected and the key should be long.
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But how long? Long enough,
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meaning the key should be long enough to
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that you need based on the value of the asset.
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But it also has to be weighed against
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the hits to performance because the longer your key,
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the slower the algorithm or
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the longer the encryption process will take.
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Just like everything, it's that
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balance security versus performance.
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Your key should be long enough.
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In this section, just to review again,
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we talked about starting with plain text.
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Last video covered initialization vector.
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This one covered algorithms and keys.
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We focused on how they all work
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together to provide us with encryption.
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Make sure you're solid with
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those terms because as we move forward into
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the next set of sections of next set of videos,
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we're going to continue to use
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these terms and just build on them.
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