Understanding Internal References

Practice Labs Module
21 minutes

The "Understanding Internal References" module provides you with the instructions and devices to develop your hands on skills in the following topics: Using Bookmarks, Using Cross-References.

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The Understanding Internal References module provides you with the instructions and devices to develop your hands on skills in the following topics.

  • Using Bookmarks
  • Using Cross-References

Lab time: It will take approximately 60 minutes to complete this lab

Exercise 1 - Using Bookmarks

Word allows you to create references inside a document, both to mark text you might want to find later and to refer to other parts of the same document. This can be helpful when you're working with long documents, whether in Word or in print.

You will learn how to:

  • Create bookmarks
  • Create cross-references

Bookmarks are a way to mark a location or selection in a document, so that you can navigate to it or refer to it later. This can be helpful for finding your way through large documents. Unlike a table of contents, bookmarks are also suitable for marking content for editing reasons, such as a section you need to revise or expand. Once you've created a bookmark, you can also refer to it in index entries, or create cross-references within the document to link to it.

Word also automatically creates its own bookmarks, called hidden bookmarks, based on content and formatting in the document. Hidden bookmarks are created by internal Word processes: for example, when you insert a table of contents, Word creates bookmarks for each entry in the table. Usually, hidden bookmarks aren't important to users, and they're not displayed in the Bookmark window unless you check Hidden bookmarks.

Exercise 2- Using Cross-References

One practical use of bookmarks is for creating cross-references. A cross-reference is text in a document that refers to another location in the document. For example, a cross-reference might say "on page 3." Because it's a field, the cross-reference updates whenever the referenced text moves. Additionally, you can make the cross-reference a hyperlink, so that in Word you can hold down Ctrl and click the link to navigate to the referenced content.

Cross-references have some advantages over hyperlinks. Not only can a cross-reference automatically update to reflect changes in the target's name or location, but unlike an ordinary hyperlink it looks like ordinary text when the document is printed. The chief disadvantage of cross-references is that they can only link inside the same document, not to other files or network locations.

Cross-references aren't specific to bookmarks. You can also create cross-references to headings, footnotes, endnotes, figures, equations, tables, and numbered items. Nor does a cross-reference have to only name the location; it can duplicate the entire text of a caption or bookmark.

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