8 hours 53 minutes
I won't come back to domain five, and we're now up to Module 5.2
in. This company asks us to explain or understand the basic methods of navigating an operating system, but as well a cz navigating through files and folders. We're also going to look at the following how to run programs, how to create shortcuts to make it easier to find a program or a document.
We look at various ways of manipulating files, such as copying them, deleting them, moving them and so on.
Well, look at the issue of setting permissions and setting. Read only access to a file.
Well, look at how to generally open, and it saves sort on filter files on how to see the sizes of files and folders.
We'll have a look at how you can capture screenshots of what you're seeing on the screen
Then we're gonna have a look at navigating without the use of a mouse. So
Windows and other operating systems have keyboard shortcuts you can use instead of using the mouse for many operations. So we'll have a look at those,
and then we'll look at accessibility options thes our options provided within an operating system to make it easier for users with disabilities to use the operating system.
So, first of all, navigating file and folder structures.
Modern computers contain millions of files on the hard disk. And fortunately for us, we're not having to deal with millions of files at a time. You can imagine if you opened up Windows Explorer and you just saw one long list off over a 1,000,000 files,
it would get a little difficult to find a particular file that you need and to work with it.
So what happens is to make this old manageable. A folder structure is created on the hard drive
to organize the files. Now folder is just a container,
and a folder can contain other folders, or it can contain files, or it can contain both.
You can navigate through the folder structure, either using commands at a command prompt or using Windows Explorer in the graphical interface. Although we're talking here primarily about Windows, there are similar utilities available in over *** and in Lenox for navigating through files and folders.
And those utilities look very similar and work in a very similar way.
Two Windows Explorer.
But first, let's just have a look at the concept of how you refer to particular folders and files.
The folders are organized in a hierarchy,
so you have folders within folders within folders.
This hierarchy begins at the root folder
The route is represented by a backslash
in Lennox on Linux based operating systems. The route is represented as a forward slash
folder. Names are also separated by the same symbol,
So if you have a folder within a folder, you separate the names of the two folders with the backslash in Windows or a forward slash in Lenox.
The term path refers to the name of a file and its exact location within the phoned Our hierarchy.
Sela. Several look at the concept of a path
a file folders location has indicated like this.
So there's an example. C. Colon backslash users. Backslash Ali backslash desktop backslash Budget forecast.
I want all these bits of the path actually made
well. The Sikh hold on
refers to the volume we're looking at,
so you might just have a single hard drive with a single volume on it. But it's possible to have several volumes on the same hard drive or to have multiple hard drives. So each has given a unique letter within Windows. Note that this is not the same in Lennox, in Lenox and UNIX operating systems.
Instead of giving each volume a drive letter, it is simply given a name, and it's considered to be a sub folder off the Groot folder.
So the first backslash there indicates we're starting at the root off. The volume That's the one in blue
Folder and file names are separated from each other with backslash is so we can see that
starting at the root of the C drive, there is a folder called Users. Within that there is a folder called Ali. Within that there's a folder called Desktop, and within that there's a document called Budget Forecast.
So in this path, we've indicated the name of the file in grade. Now, on the right hand side, you can see a graphical representation of that, so that's what it looks like in Windows Explorer.
And if you look at that carefully, you'll see that we have gone from the sea
drive to the user's folder to the Ali folder to the desktop folder, and within there you can see the file called
in Windows Explorer in the address bar. At the top,
you see each folder represented as a button, so there you can see now the route has actually just listed as local disc bracket C colon.
But then, below that, there is the user's folder, so you'll see there's a narrow. And then it says users and then inside users that the folder called Ali and Inside Ali there's a folder called Desktop.
You can click on any of these buttons if you want to backtrack your way through the folder structure. For example, if I wanted to. If I was in the desktop folder and I wanted to go back to the user's folder, I would just klick on users.
You can also click on the little arrows that you see next to each folder,
and when you do that, it shows you the sub folders within it.
So when we click on the arrow where it says users,
little menu pops down and it says, Well, there are two sub folders in there, one called Ali, and that's in bold because that's the one you're currently in.
Or there's one called public. So if I wanted to switch to the public folder, I would just click on that. And that would take me to the user's public folder rather than the user's Ali folder.
Now that isn't showing you the path in the way that I just described it. But what happens is if you click in a blank area of the address bar,
then Windows changes and shows you the traditional syntax where you can now see the path in blue C colon backslash users backslash Ali backslash desktop.
the reason for these two is this that traditionally
what you see in blue
that is the traditional path
Woz what will's used in all operating systems.
But Microsoft introduced this new look where you have
each folder represented as a button
in Windows Vista and all later operating systems from Microsoft.
Also note that in that address bar, we're only showing you the folder hierarchy doesn't show you the files you might have clicked on,
so you can use the command line to navigate through the folder structure
you need to be familiar with, particularly the CD Command,
which stands for change directory
because you need that to navigate through the folder structure at the command line.
So, for example, CD backslash moves to the root folder of the volume
CD, and then the name of a folder such as programs
would move into a sub folder of the current folder. And implication is that that sub folder is called programs
CD dot DOT moves up one folder in the hierarchy and moves you to the parent folder.
And if you type in the full path, such as seedy space, backslash Windows, backslash system 32
then you're indicating that that's the folder you want to move to. Regardless of whichever folder urine. Currently,
Windows will switch over to the folder. You have indicated
some other useful commands. So, as I said earlier, C. D stands for Change Directory, and you might be wondering why that's the command that's used. And that's simply because there's been a change in terminology. In the early days,
folders were referred to as directories, and so the command Waas change directory,
then, later on. In the last few years, we've tended to just refer to directories as folders, but they're both just two different words. For the same thing,
The MD Command, which stands for Make Directory creates a folder in the current folder
RD Removed Directory deletes a folder.
But when? If you're doing that at the command, prompt Windows will give you an error message unless that folder is empty
and D. I. R is very useful because the i r shows you a directory listing. So once you're in a particular folder, if you type the eye are it'll show you what is within that folder
in Windows seven. There were two ways of getting to the Windows Explorer. You could either click on Start and Inflict Computer,
or you could click on the Windows Explorer icon in the taskbar. Either way, that would open up Windows Explorer and Windows 10. You would do it using the icon in the taskbar.
When I click on computer, I could see what drives are available on here. I'm clicking on C Drive,
and here I can see there are for sub folders, perf logs, program files, users and windows.
If I expand the user's folder, I see there are two sub folder than there, one called Ali and one called public.
If I go into the alley folder, I can see there are several sub folders inside that, including one called Desktop.
And when I click on desktop, you'll see that there's a couple of files there.
Now If I want to backtrack, I can click on the little arrow next to the user's folder and switch over to the public folder,
and this knife now showed me the contents of the public folder flick on the user's again and go back to the Ali folder
so we can navigate through the folder structure using these buttons
like there. I just moved back to the root of the C drive,
and we could also navigate through by just clicking on the folders in the details pain
probably going to a sub folder. I can also click on a narrow and go find the sub folder in the list that pops down. So inside the Windows folder, there is a folder called System 32
and I just moved to that, and now I'm seeing the contents of that boulder
by clicking in the address bar. I can see the old style syntax that was used in operating systems earlier than Windows Fist up,
and it shows me the part C colon, backslash Windows back slashes from 32
to move to another folder here, I can type in an alternate path. So here I am, moving back to the C Colon users Ali desktop folder.
Now let's have a look at navigating through the folder structure using the command line.
So we're gonna open up a command prompt. And it shows me that currently I'm located in the C Colon Backslash Windows System 32 folder.
So I'm going to die. So use the CB Command
to move to another folder
so I can type CD.
And then if I type backslash, remember that that represents the root folder. So the prompt changes to indicate I'm now looking at the root folder
here. I can type CD
and then the name of some sub folder in this case users
and that will now
change to the user's folder. As the prompt indicates
in here, I'm gonna type D i r
the i r stands for directory listing, and it shows me the contents of the folder so I can see there's two sub folders, one called Ali and one called public.
So now, by typing CD Ali,
I'm moving into the alley folder.
And then again, I can type the I R to see what's in that folder. Now you see that there are several folders in that
Andi, I'm going to go into the desktop folder by typing CD desktop.
And once again, I can type the I R to see what is in the desktop folder. And currently there are just two fires in there
not to create a folder. I can use the M D Command, which stands for make directory,
and I'm gonna create a folder called Test. So I just type M D space test
and that folder has been created and you'll see in the graphical interface. It has appeared over in the left hand side on my desktop folder called Test
and when I type D I. R.
I could see that there is now inside the desktop folder off Hold a cold test
to move into that folder Aiken type CD test, and now the prop shows me I'm inside
the test fold up,
and now I'm going to very quickly create a file from the command line. So Copy Con, followed by the name of a text file, will create that text file
then you can type whatever content you want in that file, and then press control Z to terminate it. So that very quickly just created a text file within the test folder.
And if I type the eye are you can see it's listed there and it's 11 bites in size.
Now I'm gonna move up the structure to the parent folder of Test. So now I mean the desktop folder.
And here I'm going to use the R D Command removed directory to try and delete the test folder.
However, I just get an error message because Windows will not let you delete a folder if it is not empty.
So what I really should have done was going to the test folder first, deleted everything in there
and then move back up to the parent folder and then used the RD Command to remove the folder, which would now be empty.
If you have multiple drives, you can switch between them by using their drive letter.
So, for example, to move to look at the E Dr Aiken, Type E colon and press enter,
and now it showed me the root of the E drive. If I type D I r. I will see that there's nothing in there.
If you type in a drive letter for a drive that doesn't exist,
you got another message.
And to switch back to the C drive now I could just type C colon
and press enter
Running a program is also called Executing a Program.
Either way, there are multiple ways of running a program, so we're gonna have a look at some of them.
you can do it at the command, lying
at the command prompt. You can navigate to the folder using CD,
and once you find the folder that the executed will file is in, you just type in the name of the Executed will file, and Windows will then run that program.
You can also do something very similar using Windows Explorer. So in Windows Explorer, you simply again navigate to the folder that contains the executed will file, and in this case, you can double click on the file in order to run it.
But that gets a little bit tedious, having toe go find the particular folder and then run the program from within. The folder.
Windows also allows you to create shortcuts to the execute herbal,
and these shortcuts can be placed on your desk top on the task bar at the bottom of the screen or on your START menu. You can also create shortcuts to folders and two documents as well to make them easier to get to.
So what is a shortcut?
Well, other said, having to actually navigate to the correct folder and finding the execute Herbal
is TDs, to say the least,
A shortcut is simply a pointer to the actual location of a file.
Shortcuts can be created using a number of different methods that will have a look at in a moment
These are all done in the graphical interface, and you can then double click a shortcut to run the program.
So let's have a look at how to create shortcuts.
One way of running a program is to open up a command prompt
and then navigate to the folder that the program is in.
So I'm gonna go find Note pad, which is located in the Windows System 32 folder,
and here I could just type in the name of the executed ble with just note pad doctor he xy
and you'll see that opens up a note pad.
You can do something similar using Windows Explorer,
you can use Windows Explorer to browse to the right folder,
and then you can find the file. Now, in this case, this folder contains hundreds of files, so I'm going to use the search capability
and just type it note pad in the search box, and it's found the file for me.
So now I can double click that
on that grants note pad.
But as you can see, that's both of those are fairly tedious ways off running a program. So the other thing we can do is right. Click on a program, drag it somewhere like the desktop and then choose create shortcut here,
double cooking. That shortcut then opens up the program.
If we look in the properties of the shortcut, we see that a shortcut is really just a pointer to the actual file name and location of the file.
We could also create a shortcut on the taskbar windows, calls this pinning it to the task bar so you can right click on execute herbal and choose pin to the task bar, and you could run it from that
in a similar way, you can right click on I execute Herbal and choose pinned to the Start menu, and that creates a shortcut on the start menu so you can run it from there.
Another way of doing this is right. Click on your desktop and shoot new shortcut. This is probably the most tedious way of doing it, because you have to browse and you have to go find the folder on the file,
which in our case is buried somewhere in the Windows system. 32 fold up.
And as we saw earlier, there are hundreds of files in there,
so this might take a little time trying to find it.
Once you have found it, click on it and click okay and click next. Give the shortcut of name
and there's another shortcut.
You can also create shortcuts to documents. So here I right clicked on a document and drag that onto the desktop and creative shortcut to the document.
You can also create shortcuts to folders in the same way as creating shortcuts to fires.
For example, here we have the user's folder,
and if I don't wanna have to browse to it, Every time I open up Windows Explorer, I could right click that folder, drag it to the desktop and create a shortcut.
Now, when I double click the shortcut,
it opens up the folder for me.
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