Let's take a look at expanding the capabilities of your computer.
Your mother bought can include built in video, audio and networking capabilities.
You can use those, or if you don't have any of those features built in.
You can add those capabilities by installing expansion cards.
Even if the features are built in, However,
there may not be the later standards, or you may want to upgrade the capabilities of the system.
For example, the built in networking on a motherboard
may not support the later standards, such as one gigabit per second speed networking
or the latest WiFi standards, such as a door to door 11 a. C.
So let's take a look at the basics of installing expansion cards.
Every mother board has a few expansion slots.
They're located at the back of the motherboard, so when you install an expansion card, the sockets that might be built into it are visible from the back of the computer.
So to recap, these expansion slots could be used to add functionality to the computer
or upgrade its existing capabilities.
For example, the video capabilities of the motherboard may not use very fast graphics,
but if you need to work on graphics, files, play games or do video production and anything.
You will probably want to install a fast video adapter with plenty of memory in it. In one of those expansion slots,
although there were legacy standards for expansion cards, the latest are called P. C I A and P C I e.
Off these p. C. I. Is the older standard, and this is what PC I slots look like
on your standard is Petey I Express or P C I E. For short,
this type of slot supports multiple lanes of communication between the motherboard and the expansion card, giving you much faster capabilities.
As you can see, these two different standards for expansion slots often co exist on a motherboard,
so you can install both the newer PC I'II devices or the older PC I devices in their slots.
You can figure out how many lanes of communication are supported by a PC. I'II slot by its length.
This is a slot that supports up to 16 channels of communication.
We usually usually refer to this as X 16
but right next to it is the much shorter X one slot.
It supports only one lane of communication.
Now you can install X one expansion cards in either slot, the X one slot or the X 16 slot.
But obviously an X one slot cannot accommodate the much longer ex 16 expansion cards, so we can say that cards are up applicable but not down. Plausible,
that is, you can install an expansion card in any PC I slot that supports the same or greater number of lanes than the expansion card does.
Here are some reasons you may want to install a video expansion card or video adapter, and it is usually called.
It may be that there is built in video capabilities in the motherboard,
but it's not as powerful and fast as you need.
You may also want to expand the number of video ports available,
perhaps because you want to use multiple displays.
This card, for example, has a V G, a port, an S video port and a DV aiport.
This video is very old standard, and I doubt that you will come across that being used these days.
But many monitors do support Devi I on door VJ connections.
Psycho plug one displaying to the VD, a port that's the blue one
and another into the Devi aiport. That's the white one.
Windows will let me configure the use of both displays simultaneously
and with different programs running on each display.
Or, as I often use thes when teaching. One display shows that slides to the students, and the other display shows me my notes rather like a teleprompter.
Some other boards do not have any video capability,
so the video expansion card adds the ability to connect displays.
That's another reason for installing video cards.
Note that for displays there was an intermediate standard that was called a GP, or advanced graphics port
that was faster than P C I but was superseded by P. C i e when that was released.
So today, most motherboards don't support a GP cards. Most video cards are P C I. E.
Network ports are often built into the motherboard,
but older computers might have slower network interfaces.
You see, Ethan at networks have evolved over the years from running a 10 megabits per 2nd 200 megabits per second to today's one gigabit per second.
So let's say that the network adapter built into the motherboard supports only the older 100 megabits per second standard.
But the rest of your network, that is. For example, your home router supports one gigabit per second networking.
You could install a new one gigabit a doctor to upgrade the computer to support the newer, faster speeds.
You can also upgrade your WiFi networking capabilities to support new your WiFi standards, such as a door to door 11 a seat.
Or you might find that the motherboard doesn't even have built in support for WiFi.
In that case, by installing a wireless network adapter card,
you can give your computer the ability to connect a wireless networks.
As you can see in the picture, these wireless adapter cards allow you to connect antennas at the back of the PC.
Must motherboards do provide built in audio ports.
These are the 3.5 millimeter jack sockets, which often are colored in various pastel colors to indicate what each one is false.
For example, pink is for microphone. Lime green is for speakers.
You can use these to plug in large speakers, head firms or microphones,
but if your motherboard doesn't have audio built in
or you want to upgrade to higher quality audio
you can install audio expansion cards
at one time, around 20 or so years ago, most of us connected to the Internet using our telephone lines
that required a device known as an analog modem.
Modems were devices that converted the data we wanted to send or receive into sand signals and transmitted them down the telephone wires.
Modems could be separate devices or built into the motherboard.
you could install modem expansion cards like this one in the expansion slots.
Note that this is a pretty ancient technology, at least in terms,
and you're unlikely to come across analog modems today.
Today, most of us connect to the Internet via the cable company rather than telephone lines.
So although cable modems are commonplace, analog modems are pretty rare.
However, the comp here syllabus mentions analog modems, and that's why we're covering them here.
I should just mention that there is still one situation in which analog modems are useful
if you happen to find yourself in a location that doesn't have Internet access,
but there is a phone line
well, In that case, you might find yourself using analog modems because that's the only means of communication available to you.
So let's have a look at removing and installing expansion slot cards.
Here in my computer, I have a video card, a sound card and a modem.
So here is my video card. It's a P C I E. Card.
A lot of P C I E cards have a clip in the back that holds them in place. So I'm just going to
it's a little fiddly, as you can see
and then take. The car died.
So there's a video card
it has the pins of the bottom that go into the slot, has a fan to keep it cool,
and they're at the video ports.
Next, we have a sound card
There are the audio ports at the back.
you'll see that the P C I and the P. C I E. Pins I can't very different.
And so those two cards will only fit into the appropriate slots.
Next, we have a PC I modem card.
There's that at the back you can see
the R J 11 sockets. So one of the court would go from one of those into the phone line in your wall, and you could play the telephone it to the other one.
Now, if you have taken any cards out, and therefore there's a space in the back
than these blanking plates are put in,
and that's to maintain the air flow throughout the PC, even when there are no cards in place.
let's reinstall the cards and then
at the back here, normally what you would do is put in a screw
and that you see the little school honing the tap from the card.
In this case, though, there's a cover that goes over the top so you don't need screws and it locks the card in place.
So let's summarize what we have looked at. In Model 2.3,
we looked at some of the internal components of a desktop computer.
We took a tour around the motherboard the main circuit board found inside a computer,
and we saw that various components I installed on that,
including the CPU or processor,
and we saw that there are various types of sockets that have historically been used for installing Si, pues.
We saw also that the CPU is usually hidden underneath a hit sink and a cooling fan.
We looked at the power supply and the various cables that emerged from it to power the motherboard
and any drives such as hard disks or optical drives.
We looked at installing memory, commonly called Ram.
We looked at installing mass storage devices like hard discs and DVDs,
and we saw that the modern interface used for connecting these two. The motherboard is called Satya.
We took a look at keeping the computer cool with a variety of fans, and we discussed liquid cooling.
Finally, we looked at installing and removing expansion cards.