Hardware Module 2 Introduction
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welcome to domain to off the camp T A I T fundamentals class domain to focuses on hardware
in Module 2.1 were asked to identify basic wired and wireless peripherals and their purpose.
So this module we will look at peripherals
peripheral is anything that can be plugged into a computer using one of its ports. We will look at those different ports in Model 2.2,
so peripherals would include your keyboard mouse display that you plug in a printer scanner,
external hard drives or any other bit of hardware you plug into your computer.
Let's start off by looking at output devices.
The video I put from a computer is sent to the display.
Sound is I'll put by speakers,
and if you want hard copies of what you see on the screen,
you could use a printer.
There are three major types of printers and use today.
Laser printers are used in business environments. They produce very good quality text and simple graphics, but they're not great for printing photographs
at home. Many people prefer inkjet printers
thes use liquid ink rather than tona.
Inkjet printers are almost always capable of color printing
for printing photographs on glossy paper. Big jets are far superior to laser printers,
although the printout may become permanent after the Incas dried, though, spilling water on the printout might smudge it. And that's because Liquid Inc is being used.
Thermal printers are not commonly used in homes or most businesses.
However, there is one type of business that makes extensive use of thermal printers.
Receipt printers deployed at the checkout in shops are usually thermal printers.
Let's start off by looking at laser printers. These are very commonly used in corporate networks,
and one reason for that is
that laser printers give the cheapest cost per page,
and we'll come back to that when we compare the cost to inkjet printers.
Laser printers use a dry powder called tona.
The toner is fused to the paper using heat.
You might have noticed that when paper comes out of a laser printer, it's sometimes warm
by. Fusing the toner to the paper
printout has made permanent
another big advantage for businesses
in terms of maintenance. The most common type of maintenance required for laser printers is toner cartridge replacement.
If it is a black and white printer, there is only one cartridge for
the black toner that you need to replace
color laser printers will typically have four toner cartridges
black scion, magenta and yellow.
Although toner cartridges are expensive maybe just under $100 each.
Each cartridge can typically print a couple of 1000 pages.
Therefore, the cost per page is actually lower than for inkjet printers.
As I mentioned earlier, inkjet printers are frequently found in homes and in small businesses.
Inkjet printers are incredibly cheap.
You can pick up a low end one for between 50 and $100. That's around the cost of a single laser printer toner cartridge.
But of course, that a catch,
even though in cartridges, are much cheaper than laser toner cartridges.
They run out much sooner,
and generally the cost per page is much higher than for laser printers.
Let's introduce the concept off
TCL or total cost of ownership here.
When you're evaluating which type of printer to get,
you should take into account not just the cost of the printer,
but also the cost of consumables like ink.
If you do,
inkjet printers look a lot less attractive due to their high cost per page
ink jet printers use liquid ink that it squirted onto the page in microscopic droplets.
The print head either uses heat or a piece of electric valve to control the flow of ink.
Because this is ink, you should not use highly absorbent paper for jack printing.
If you use absorbent paper.
That tiny, precise dot of ink that escorted onto the page
infuses into the paper and making the image look a little fuzzy.
With the right type of paper, however, you can get great results.
That's why these types of printers are excellent for printing photographs on glossy paper.
One downside of inkjet printers is that they can be noisy
as far as maintenance goes. Inkjet printers required more maintenance than laser printers, not least because you end up having to replace the ink cartridges much more frequently,
plus those tiny nozzles through which the Inca squirted can become clogged.
The printer will have methods for unclogging the muscles.
You can either send it a command from your printer from your computer,
using the properties of the print ink jet printer
or by pressing buttons on the printer itself.
The exact method varies from one printer to another.
You'll need to consult the printer documentation.
The other problem that can arise is that the print heads for the different colors can become misaligned,
and again there is usually a routine for checking alignment. Onda adjusting it.
Here's how to replace in cartridges in an ink jet printer.
I have to lift up the cover
and then you'll see there's an LCD panel and I'm going through the menus and choosing to do cartridge maintenance.
So the carriage moves out
to where I can access the cartridges.
The cover off
unclipped the cartridge I want to remove up to change,
and at this point I would dispose of the old cartridge. And who said a new one?
Slip that into place
and then pressed the appropriate button to indicate that I've finished.
At this point, you're going to see lots of movement
and lots of noise as
it primes the cartridge ready for use.
That's usually takes a minute or two.
As you can see, this is noise against well.
So as I mentioned earlier, the most common used for thermal printers is for printing receipts, and shops
note that thermal printers do not use Toner or INC
instead, the paper is heat sensitive,
and the print had hits up tiny dots as it moves across the page, creating the ridges on the paper.
Therefore, the consumable in this case is the thermal paper that you have to buy.
One problem with thermal paper is that it's not very stable.
If stored for a long time, the printout can fade. You might well have had this experience where you have stored a receipt away
and a year or so later. When you go to get that receipt out,
you find that all of the black has faded away and you just got a black bit of paper
Onda. The other problem is, if you expose the paper to heat,
the entire page can turn black.
Another type of thermal printer uses wax to create the printout. The wax is melted onto the paper.
This type of printer was popular for creating photographic quality color print types.
These days, inkjet printers are a simpler, cheaper way of creating photographic quality printouts,
so let's move on and look at display devices.
Historically, C R T monitors were used for display devices for computers.
C R T stands for cathode ray tube,
similar to the old style TV's. They were big and bulky and generated a lot of heat.
These days, flat panel LCD monitors are almost universally used.
Some of these flat screens are touch sensitive, settle on smartphones and tablets, but also your laptops.
You could also get touch screens for desktop peces
Projectors can also be used when you need to project a movie or presentation onto a large screen.
When comparing displays.
Here are a few technical specifications to consider.
Firstly, the screen resolution.
Ah, high resolution is better.
Images are much more sharply defined and less blurry in high resolution
resolution is expressed in pixels.
The pixel is an individual dot
The more dots there are, the higher the resolution.
What is commonly referred to as full high definition
means that there are 1920 pixels across in 1000 and 80 pixels down.
That's a total of over two million pixels.
The response time indicates how quickly a pixel can change color or brightness.
High end displays can approach one millisecond response time.
The response time effects How good, fast moving video looks on the screen.
Gamers play games on their computers. Will try to get displays with the fastest response times they can.
Another specifications to look at is refresh frequency
that measures how many times a second the images updated
again, gamers will go for the highest they can afford.
But for most of US, 60 hertz is more than adequate,
but 60 times a second.
The older type of display was the C R T type.
They worked by firing electrons of the inside of the screen.
If you were to look closely,
you would see that the screen is made up of red, green and blue dots.
There are three separate electron guns, one for each color.
When a gun fires Electron said the dots, the appropriate color lights up.
Bear in mind that all colors are a mixture of the three primary colors red, green and blue.
By varying the amount of each color, we can create any color we like on the screen.
This, though, is pretty much a legacy technology, and you're unlikely to come across Seattle monitors or TVs these days.
C. A T monitors were big and heavy,
used a lot of power
and suffered from burning.
Burning refers to
If you leave a static image on the screen for long enough,
it can burn itself into the screen.
That's why screen savers were invented.
What screen savers do is they put moving images on the screen when your computer's not being used,
and that avoids a single image getting burnt into the screen.
The most common type of display today, though, is Theo LCD flat panel displays.
LCDs do not emit light,
so the LCD panels have lighting inside the basil that surrounds the screen and shines into the panel.
Earlier displays used fluorescent lighting,
which would, as it started to age,
get dimmer and finally start flickering
Modern panels. Use L L E D's,
which don't suffer from these problems.
The liquid crystals are manipulated through electrical signals do either block or reflect the light that's shining in from the sides.
A newer type of flat panel display is known as I P s, which stands for in plain switching.
This gives better color rendition and better viewing angles.
That means if you look at the panel from an angle, the image is still clear.
Um, with the older style of LCD panels.
If you were looking head on at the panel then you would see a clear image. But as you move the way to the side and looked at it from an angle,
then the image would become darker.
I PS panels give you much better angles, wider angles from which you can view the image.
here's a few points about LCD displays.
They're much smaller and lighter than a C R T display.
They use much less power and therefore generate less heat.
They're much less susceptible to the image burning problems that I mentioned with C. Artie's.
They are easier to recycle,
and they have high resolution and do not flicker.
One of the problems with C R T monitors wasif there refresh frequency was too low. There would be discernible flickering on the screen, which, actually, you know, created problems. For some people,
there was this up susceptible to it.
The latest display technology is the use off OLEDs, which stands for organic light emitting die outs.
Being knew, this type of displays more expensive,
so it has been used for smaller screens like smartphones and tablets.
But surprisingly, it's also made its way onto large screen TVs and curved TVs.
Oh, lead computer displays are slowly starting to appear.
Unlike LCDs, OLEDs do not do admit their own light, and therefore no separate lighting is required for a Nolan display.
Let's compare old leads to LCD panels.
They consume less power than LCD panels
that have deeper blacks and higher contrast than LCDs, which just means everything. This looks a lot clearer.
As I've already mentioned, they are more expensive than out CDs currently,
and oh, led screens can be flexible.
So we now have the latest generation TVs with curved screens,
and one or two computer displays like that have started to appear a swell
in the future. It may be possible to print old heads on to virtually any type of material,
so the display could be
like a flexible piece of plastic that you could just roll up like a magazine.
Another type of display is a projector.
Digital projectors can be connected to a computer using the same ports and cables that display monitors. Use
projectors work by having a very bright light shining through an LCD panel.
In the past, the light bulbs, or halogen or similar technologies and the bulbs had a useful life of a few 100 hours and we're expensive to replace,
but we're increasingly seeing Led is used these days.
Ladies may have a life for 20,000 hours, so probably as long as your projector lasts.
The big advantage of projectors is that you can project onto very large screens, which is great for watching movies or doing presentations to large audiences.
And a projector is much more portable than a large screen display if you need to carry it around with you.
As with displays, different resolutions are available, so you should check the resolution off the projector before purchasing it.
And the other big issue is how bright is the projector.
The brightness of a projector is expressed in units called lumens.
For a brightly lit room,
you would want projectors capable of 2000 or more lumens.
But if you're going to be only projecting in darkened rooms, you know, with the shades down and the lights off,
then 1200 lumens might be quite adequate for that.
So you really need to think about in what kind of environment are you going to be using these projectors?
Another type of output device is a speaker.
Most desktop computers do not have built in loud speakers.
Many external speakers are available with built in amplifiers and even subwoofers.
You can plug those into the audio out sockets in the computer.
Laptops, tablets and smartphones have built in speakers,
but would benefit from connecting to external louder, better speakers.
One connection method. You can use his Bluetooth if the speaker supports that
with Bluetooth pairing, the speakers don't need to have any wires connecting to the computer because the sound is sent through Bluetooth to the speaker.
Next, we're going to look at input devices.
The oldest input device used was a keyboard.
And remember, the earliest computers and operating systems did not have a graphical interface. So the keyboard was all you needed doing. Put anything into the system.
Once we had graphical interfaces, though, we could use a mouse
apart from a mouse. There are other pointing devices, such as track prides and track bowls, so we'll take a look at those as well.
To input images. We can use scanners and webcams,
and to input sound. We can use microphones.
We'll take a look at each type of input device in the next few slides,
but let's start with the keyboard
keyboards are used with every type of computing device desktops, laptops, smartphones and tablets.
Some, such as laptops, have built in keyboards.
Desktop computers have external keyboards that plug into the USB port.
In the past, PS two connectors were used, and you see those here, the purple in the green.
These were six pinned in sockets.
Purple was for the keyboard connection and green for the mouse connection.
But, as I said, mostly these days, keyboards and mouse are plankton using USB ports.
Sometimes smartphones have an actual physical keyboard that slides out.
Most likely, though, the smartphone or tablet will use a soft keyboard
by soft. We mean it's not a physical keyboard, it appears on the screen, and you can touch the screen in order Type.
If you have a Bluetooth enabled keyboard, though
you compare most mobile devices to that
in order to make it easier to input a large amounts of text
with graphical operating systems, you need some kind of pointing device.
The most common one used is a mouse.
Originally, the mouse had a rubber coated ball underneath it that would move as you move the mass around
the bold moved horizontal and vertical rollers within the body, and that was used to track which direction you were moving the my sin.
One problem that was common was that the ball would pick up dirt and dust and transfer it to the rollers,
so you had to regularly take out the ball and clean it on the rollers.
Fortunately, that mechanism was replaced by led or laser technology.
In this case, a light shines down onto the desk,
and it's reflected back and picked up, and that is used to track movements of the mouse.
You would connect the mass to the green PS to port on older systems. But today, as with keyboards, the mask connects to the computer either through a USB port
or if it's a wireless mouse using blue, too.
A track pied is a
common pointing device used with laptops.
It's a touch sensitive panel that sits in front of the keyboard,
usually with two buttons that emulate the left. Click already right. Click with the mouse.
If your device has a touch screen, it may come with a stylus.
A stylist is used just like a pen. On paper.
You can write on the screen
for example, to add comments to a document.
Or you could highlight text
or mark up the text, make corrections and so on.
Plus, a stylist is also great for budding artists as they can draw directly onto the screen.
No, that not all touch sensitive screens are designed to work with the stylus.
Most just allow the use of a finger rather than a stylus.
A pointing device favored by gamers, Games players is a joystick
modeled on the joystick that pilots might use to fly a plane
in legacy systems. There was a special connector that was used to plug in a joystick or some other type of games controller.
These days again,
they just plug into a USB port.
And as you can see, that may have a huge array of buttons on there.
And a lot of those buttons can be tailored to the particular games that you're playing.
So, for example, you wouldn't configure one button to make your character jump another button to fire something and so on.
And obviously, moving the joystick around moves the character or around on the screen as well.
Another pointing device that is a straightforward replacement for a mouse is a trackball.
It's sort of like an upside down. Most
you use your finger or thumb to rotate the ball, and you can see in this illustration it's right.
The trackball also has left and right click buttons, just like a mouse
and possibly a scroll wheel, just like a mouse
moving on from pointers and looking at in putting images into your computer.
So scanners are used to input images off documents or pictures.
Some scanners have chic feeders,
in which case you can put in a stack of pages, and it pulls each page through and scans it.
If your scanner doesn't have a sheet feeder,
you lift up the Platen and lay down the sheet of paper that you want to scan,
so you have to scan one page at a time.
This is not efficient if you regularly need to scan large numbers of pages.
In that case, it's worth investing in a scanner that has a sheet feeder.
The use off sound as an interface to computer devices is becoming widespread.
You speak to your device.
You could do that to issue commands such as open Power Point.
You could also use that to dictate words that that are then converted to text and entered into documents.
This technology is in many ways, in its infancy. Speech recognition is not yet perfect, as you will see in this video, where I attempt to dictate some notes into note pad,
Open note pad.
Okay, opening note pad.
To be or not to be.
That is the question
Whether tis nobler in the mind
to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune
that you can see, I had to edit the text.
Microphones are built into devices like spot phones, tablets on laptops.
For desktop computers, you can plug in an external microphone
with external microphones. You can purchase, you know, low quality cheap ones, but also high quality professional microphones, depending on the kind of sign quality you need when recording
microphones are also often built into webcams, which we're gonna look at on the next slide.
So webcams provide a way of inputting
images or videos.
Um, you could also use them for video chatting with tools like Facebook Messenger
and you can use them for video conferencing.
Just as with microphones, Webcams are built into mobile devices
for desktop computers, you can get an external Web common. Plug it into the USB port.
When purchasing a webcam. Look at the stated resolution. Usually expressed is the number of mega pixels.
The higher the number, the higher the resolution image you can get.
You might also see the frame rate is stated.
This indicates how many times a second it can capture the image for video
again. The higher the value, the better quality video you will get.
Some devices can be used both for input and output,
so let's have a look at these. These would include faxes, external storage and media players,
although up till now I've mentioned printers on scanners as two separate devices.
Often these capabilities are combined into a single device.
These are referred to as multi function devices.
Not only do you save space with such a device,
but it also allows you to use it as a simple photocopier.
Faxing was a popular way of transmitting images off documents using a phone line.
Many of these multi function devices can act as a fax device if you plug them into the telephone Jack when your wall.
In that case, the device can vote send and receive faxes.
Faxing, though, is a fast fading technology.
Today we can easily send a copy of an image or document to someone by capturing the image. Using a camera or scanner
and then just attaching it to Anne about
the internal storage in a desktop or laptop is usually a mechanical hard drive.
These cannot be easily removed or expanded.
This is particularly true of black tops, where it's often difficult to actually open it up and get inside and find the hard drive.
But even with desktops where the hard disk is considered in fr yu, a field replaceable device or unit,
it is often a fiddly job.
You have to make sure you have enough spare data and power cables to add a drive,
and you have to open the case and install that you drive in an available Dr Bait.
External storage provides a convenient way of copying and moving data from one device to another.
You can buy an external drive, which you simply plug into an available USB port.
Smaller external drives draw power from the USB connection
for larger drives. They will often come with their own external power supply adapter that you plug into the mains,
adding external storage can expand the storage capability of a device
and provides a way of backing up your data.
Both Apple's OSX and Windows 10
have the ability to continuously monitor your data folders
and back up any files you change to that external drive.
And if you're terrible at doing backups like I am,
that's a great automated solution.
An external hard disk is basically the same thing as an internal heart desk, except that it's in its own separate box and often has a separate power supply.
Like the hard disks in your computer, they're usually mechanical heart discs, meaning they're relatively slow and sensitive to Knox Vibrations, et cetera.
Sometimes they are solid state drives.
Solid state drives are much more expensive, but they are much faster and more robust as there are no moving parts to damage in a solid state drive.
Flash memory, also known as memory cards or flash drives,
also have no moving parts. Just like solid state drives,
however, they are generally much slower and cheaper and have less capacity than a solid state drive.
These are really very useful for moving data around
so you can take
a one of these flash memory devices, plug it into one device, copy data onto it that move it to another device.
Historically, there have been several form factors for flash drives.
Compact flash was around
one and 1/2 inches square
and became an industry standard.
At the same time, some vendors such a Sony, produced their own proprietary for months.
Whichever type of memory stick you have, your computer or mobile device must have the appropriate circuits to actually plug them in.
Now. One way of getting around that problem. Our USB sticks
of common implementation for flash drives,
sometimes known as a USB stick, sometimes known as a thumb drive.
This does not require any special sockets. Just plugs into any USB port.
You might want to pay attention to which version of us be is supported by your computer. On the USB stick,
USB three will give you the fastest connections.
But today the most popular form off flash drive is what is known as a secure digital memory card, or SD for short.
Many devices, from smartphones to desktops, have an SD or a micro SD socket.
Micro SD cards are tiny about the size of a thumbnail.
They are popular in smartphones and tablets and digital cameras.
If your computer doesn't have a micro SD slot, which is quite likely,
you can get adapters that will convert micro SD to a normal sized esty.
So, for example, if you have a smartphone and you want to copy some of your photographs from it,
most likely you have a micro SD card in there.
So you take that out, you plug it into the adapter, and then you can plug it into your desktop computer and copy your files from that
media players such as Rocco or Amazon Fire
plug into the H D M eye socket on a computer display or a bottom TV.
You can use them to receive and view streaming content, such as Netflix movies or music played through Pandora.
The big advantage of these is that you do not need to connect your PC to the TV.
You can even set up your own streaming media server in a home network and use these devices to access the video and audio content stored on the media server.
One way of storing media on a *** small business network is the use of Nash devices
and as device is an enclosure that has his two or more hard disks.
The device plugs directly into the network rather than being attached to a computer
than as and its contents can then be accessed from any device on your network
so you can watch any videos stored on it. Listen to any music or other audio stored on it, or you can use it as a false ever where you just store your files, your documents and so on, and you can access those from any device on your network.
Another benefit off Daz devices is that they usually have something called raid built in
raid stands for redundant array off independent discs.
Rate can utilize multiple hard disks to provide full tolerance on better performance.
For example, with what's called raid one or mirroring,
you are protected against the failure of a single hard disk
rate. Zero, also known as striping,
gives you better performance,
but no for tolerance.
Right five, which requires at least three hard disks,
gives you both protection against disc failure
on better performance.
Many CDs and DVDs are read only,
for example, that contain software or music or movies and cannot be updated or changed.
But you can't purchase recordable CDs and DVDs,
and the CD or DVD drive in your computer can then right data to those disks.
This process is sometimes called burning a CD or DVD.
The latest types of disks called Blue Ray
that I used for high definition movies
can store gigabytes or data
smartphones are listed as input. I put devices by camped here
in the sense that they output video and audio.
You can also record sound and images on the smartphone
so you can use them both for input and output.
In a similar way,
touch screen displays are also considered input and output devices
as an output device. The function just like a display. So you can, you know, watch videos browsed into that and so on,
but also because you can interact with the screen, either with your finger or a stylus. It's also an input device,
so we've reached the end of model 2.1, and we looked at various types of peripheral devices.
We looked at output devices such as displays and printers.
We looked at many types of input devices ranging from keyboards, the mouse to stylus to even sound,
and we looked at devices that could be used both as input are not put devices such as touch screens and multi function devices that combines scanning, printing, photocopying and faxing capabilities.
Compare and Contrast Common Computer Connector Types
Identify the Purpose of Internal Computer Components
Security Module 3 Introduction