### Video Transcription

00:00

Hello. This is Dr Miller, and this is Episode 7.1 of Assembly.

00:05

Today we're gonna talk about local variables,

00:09

so local variables are variables that are used inside of a function, and then the value disappears. Or at least it's not accessible when the function is finished.

00:18

Actually, by definition, the value is still on the stack,

00:21

but it is not accessible, and we can't use it.

00:25

So here's an example with several different local variables. So, for example, inside of its function Fu, we have the local variable some and the local variable I

00:36

while in the main function we have a local variable called Why, in a local variable called X,

00:42

these are gonna you be used inside of the functions. And so programmers will often use them when they're programming programming in a high level language.

00:51

Now that's going to get lost. Those names will be lost, but we'll be able to see it when we reverse engineer or look at,

00:58

ah, high level language that gets compiled down, and that'll give us a good example of how we're going to be able to use them.

01:04

So local variables used the e BP register and then the first variable is that CBP minus four

01:11

and so e v p points to the old value of V B P. So if we go down, E v p minus four is gonna be our first local variable, and then our second role, be it eight and then 12 16 multiples of four.

01:26

So if you're going to allocate them, you can say sub BSP where e s P will point tvp

01:33

and then X. If you have x number of local variables, you take X times four. Now give you them out. So, for example, if you have 10 variables,

01:42

then you'd say sub e b E s p

01:46

four times 10. We should be 40

01:48

or if you just have one, you just subtract for

01:51

and so that's how you're going to do it inside of our program.

01:56

Here's another example. So if we have a local variable weaken increment that

02:00

now we can't increment it directly in memory and so we have to copy the value from the local variable CBP minus four into a register se X

02:10

and then increment that and then save that value back onto the stack. And so that's the equivalent of like a high level language

02:19

like C or C plus plus or java to the single command X plus. Plus so just to increment a variable that we have.

02:28

So here's a couple examples. If I have X equals zero y equals one and Z equals two in the high level language of C.

02:35

If I get that into assembly, I have three variables.

02:38

Times four gives me 12. So I need to subtract 12.

02:43

And then I could move zero into X one in the UAE and two and Dizzy.

02:47

And so we have the notion of thinking of them as just offsets. And so X is offset for minus for Why is minus eight and Z is minus 12?

02:58

And then, since we did a subtract, we have to do an ad at the end to correct our stack.

03:05

Now here we take the same thing, and we're gonna do X is equal to y plus Z.

03:09

And so we said our initial values here at the beginning we still subtract 12

03:15

but then we might want to move in to yea X

03:19

X and then into Pboc's why, and then add those to the two together and then store them a Z.

03:25

I may have done the little backwards, so them in excess, we load

03:30

y and Z and then store them back in X

03:34

so we can see how we can manipulate something that is in a local variable.

03:38

And we just have to be able to do our operations on that locally, inside of a register, and then we can save it back onto the stack.

03:46

And that's where our local variables will live.

03:52

So the example program that we gave earlier where we can compile that with GCC minus M 32 so that it has 32 bit

04:00

and the name of our file was test dot c. In my example, you can call it whatever you want.

04:04

Um and then if you don't give it out, profile it by default creates a doubt on Lennox.

04:12

And so then we can do a object dump, which will show us the assembly version of that, and we'll look at that here in a little bit.

04:19

So,

04:21

for example, if we have our function called Fu, if we look at a disassembly of that,

04:27

we will see that we got zero going to the end of our

04:30

80 going into a bar. Four. It's hard to tell because both some starts at zero and I start to zero.

04:39

But if we look inside of here, we'll see that we're adding to bar for one each time,

04:45

whereas the some looks like it's going into Bar eight. So we're loading the value of

04:51

I and then adding it to what's in Hvar eight.

04:56

And then you can see at the bottom. Here we see movie a X e B P plus var eight. And so that's going to copy the value some into yea X, which is the return register. And then we're seeing our return at the end

05:11

and so we can see that there will be a clear,

05:14

um,

05:15

definition of what gets produced in here based on the source code. And so there's a mapping that goes from source code to assembly. But as you can see, I gave that nice names in here like some and I and those all got lost. And so all we ended up with is a variable name.

05:39

So today we discussed local variables,

05:42

and in the future, we're going to give a local variable example. So we'll start off and will build on entire program.

05:47

And we'll basically implement from scratch using local variables.

05:51

And then, in a future lecture will talk about the intern. Leave instructions.

05:58

So the quiz. The question is, what is the offset of the third parameter

06:01

that we can use or local variable?

06:04

And that is zero XY,

06:08

and it's actually negatives. Iraq. See

06:11

right, because we're going below the stack.

06:14

So if you have questions, you can contact me at Miller MJ at you and Kate I e. To you and on Twitter at Milhouse 30.

### Up Next

### Assembly

This course will provide background and information related to programming in assembly. Assembly is the lowest level programming language which is useful in reverse engineering and malware analysis.

### Instructed By

Matthew Miller

Instructor