and wrapping up this section on I p. We do want to talk about I p version six for a bit.
I p Version six is coming. But if you're like me, then you've heard that it's been coming for the last 15 years.
There are lots of reasons to go to I p v six. The primary driver is the fact that I P v six is the first i p protocol that comes built with security.
There is no built in security and I p version for no encryption or authentication
with I p v six. You get that and security comes to us through i p sec.
Remember, that's how I P SEC was created as part of IPTV six.
It would be nice to have a protocol that was designed to be secure, as opposed to having security added as an afterthought.
Then, of course, we discussed the tremendous need for IP addressing space.
It's not as critical as people sometimes make it sound.
We have network address translation, which means all of our internal I P addresses can be hidden,
so we're not so much worried about running out of I P addresses, but as more and more devices become I p o where it would be nice to have a larger address space
where an IP version four IP addresses are written in dotted decimal.
I. P V six is represented in Hexi Decimal, separated by colons
off the bat. You can probably look at that and determine it doesn't feel very user friendly.
What I'm thinking about is walking around from system to system, trying to manually configure I P v six addresses.
The idea is that this won't be necessary because the big push with I P v. Sixes auto configuration,
you can see the portions of the address, the network address submit address or I P or I D and the client ID
the network and submit pieces could and should be generated by the router
and then have the client I D generated based on a Mac address or some other factor.
Having this auto configuration will be helpful and easy ng administrative burden.
On the right side, we can see these I P V six addresses.
They feel very long and intimidating, but we can shorten these
when you have a string of zeros like we see here you can omit that string of zeros and replace them with a double colon.
The requirement for that is you can only do it once, and it must be consecutive zeros.
You can't pick and choose which zeros.
The other piece not on this slide is looking. After 2000 and one, you have O. D. B eight
that leading zero can be dropped off to make it a shorter address.
Even though I P v six is not just an extension of I P v four, it's a totally different protocol, and there are a lot of elements in place.
I P v six needs a loop back address, which is a double colon one.
There are also addresses similar to a P i p A. When a D H C P server can't be reached and the client has to auto configure.
The first section of this address will be F e a T.
Similarly, you can also have either FC 00 or F D 00 for unique local addresses.
These are the equivalent of RFC 1918, where you have internal private addresses like the 10 Network 172.19 to remember those.
Another thing to note. If it begins with F f, it's a multicast address.
Interestingly enough, there is no broadcast in I. P V six.
They've moved to something called any casting, which affects your directly connected neighbor as opposed to broadcasting.
Any time we're going to something new, we can't just go out with the old and end with the new.
In many cases, there is a period of time where translation is needed,
or you have a system configured for I P B four, and you need to go to another network. That's I P V six.
At any rate, you find out you have networks with I P. V six and some with I P V six, and you'll figure out how to make that work as efficiently as possible.
One of the ways to do this is by running a dual stack.
That means you've got a system using IPTV four, and on that same system, you're also running I P V six.
You can run as many protocols in the background is needed
When you configure it, there's a binding order that you can use to choose your protocol of preference.
You can turn on both I. P V four and I P v six.
There's a type of Browder called s a T ap router designed primarily for that type of environment.
If you have i p v six traffic running on an I p V for network or vice versa,
I s a t A P can provide the additional addressing information and configure those pockets so that they can get to where they're going across. Whatever type of network is running,
you can take a look at the w X y Z encapsulated I P v four address here on the right,
you can also tunnel, which simply means wrap one type of protocol inside one of another.
There's a 6 to 4 tunneling protocol,
so your I P V six pockets are essentially placed inside your I P B four pockets.
They're then treated as I p v four pockets on the network
they received at the destination and converted back to at B B six.
This is not something that would be used behind an N 80 device. Rather, the idea is to go out to the external network to the Internet.
I've got internal I p v six traffic that I want to run across the I p V for Internet.
The next option is Tara Joe and Mary Jo
Territo from Microsoft and Merida for Lennox and UNIX.
Ultimately, the I P V six packets are sent based on UDP messages over a specific port. 35 44.
Inserting the I P B four pockets inside of UDP allows it to tunnel through a n A T device without requiring the use of I p V six addresses.
G R E or generic route encapsulation is a routing protocol that goes back prior to I p V for back to Apple talk of a TCP I p Network.
This is an encapsulation.
A link is created between devices from router to router, and various protocols can be encapsulated between those two points.
It doesn't have to be about HPV six and I p before
it's simply an encapsulation protocol that can work with both I P v six and I P v four.
Last but not least, we have one called 4 to 6, an alternative to 64. That's a different environment.
I've got I P B for traffic that I want to go to an I P. V six network
with 6 to 4. I have internal trafficking that's using I P V six that I want to send out to the public i p v for network.
You're rarely going to see that right now because, of course, the Internet is on I p before,
and we don't really need that conversion.
All of this becomes more or less relevant, depending on how popular I P V six becomes.
Currently, there has been a massive flocking to I P V six here in the States, even though it's been around for a while.
It depends what our environment looks like in the next few years,
with networking being done on the cloud. There are lots of different variables that come into play
that brings us to the end of module to.
We talked a lot about Ip addressing because it's such a crucial part of networking.
We looked at the basics of what an I P address is discussed, what the sub net masks do and talked about classical addressing and local versus remote.
We talked about local ad dressing being on my same network and remote addressing needing to go through a router.
Next we discuss special purpose I p address. Sing like a P I. P. A.
We talked about the loop back for troubleshooting unit cast, multicast and broadcast addresses and also discuss private Internal I PS, which we see a lot in the workplace.
We then moved to C I. D E R.
That's something people can have trouble with if they haven't worked through it before.
So I recommend going back to that section to review those videos and make sure you're solid.
You can expect to see plenty of questions about that on the exam, since they know it's something students sometimes struggle with
last. But at least we discussed some issues with the I P V six, whether or not it will ever be here and the different types of addressing and benefits of using it.