IPv6 and Module 2 Conclusion

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Time
8 hours 19 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
8
Video Transcription
00:00
and wrapping up this section on I p. We do want to talk about I p version six for a bit.
00:06
I p Version six is coming. But if you're like me, then you've heard that it's been coming for the last 15 years.
00:13
There are lots of reasons to go to I p v six. The primary driver is the fact that I P v six is the first i p protocol that comes built with security.
00:23
There is no built in security and I p version for no encryption or authentication
00:30
with I p v six. You get that and security comes to us through i p sec.
00:35
Remember, that's how I P SEC was created as part of IPTV six.
00:41
It would be nice to have a protocol that was designed to be secure, as opposed to having security added as an afterthought.
00:48
Then, of course, we discussed the tremendous need for IP addressing space.
00:53
It's not as critical as people sometimes make it sound.
00:56
We have network address translation, which means all of our internal I P addresses can be hidden,
01:02
so we're not so much worried about running out of I P addresses, but as more and more devices become I p o where it would be nice to have a larger address space
01:11
where an IP version four IP addresses are written in dotted decimal.
01:17
I. P V six is represented in Hexi Decimal, separated by colons
01:22
off the bat. You can probably look at that and determine it doesn't feel very user friendly.
01:26
What I'm thinking about is walking around from system to system, trying to manually configure I P v six addresses.
01:33
The idea is that this won't be necessary because the big push with I P v. Sixes auto configuration,
01:40
you can see the portions of the address, the network address submit address or I P or I D and the client ID
01:49
the network and submit pieces could and should be generated by the router
01:53
and then have the client I D generated based on a Mac address or some other factor.
01:57
Having this auto configuration will be helpful and easy ng administrative burden.
02:04
On the right side, we can see these I P V six addresses.
02:07
They feel very long and intimidating, but we can shorten these
02:12
when you have a string of zeros like we see here you can omit that string of zeros and replace them with a double colon.
02:19
The requirement for that is you can only do it once, and it must be consecutive zeros.
02:24
You can't pick and choose which zeros.
02:27
The other piece not on this slide is looking. After 2000 and one, you have O. D. B eight
02:32
that leading zero can be dropped off to make it a shorter address.
02:38
Even though I P v six is not just an extension of I P v four, it's a totally different protocol, and there are a lot of elements in place.
02:46
For example,
02:47
I P v six needs a loop back address, which is a double colon one.
02:52
There are also addresses similar to a P i p A. When a D H C P server can't be reached and the client has to auto configure.
03:00
The first section of this address will be F e a T.
03:04
Similarly, you can also have either FC 00 or F D 00 for unique local addresses.
03:12
These are the equivalent of RFC 1918, where you have internal private addresses like the 10 Network 172.19 to remember those.
03:22
Another thing to note. If it begins with F f, it's a multicast address.
03:27
Interestingly enough, there is no broadcast in I. P V six.
03:31
They've moved to something called any casting, which affects your directly connected neighbor as opposed to broadcasting.
03:39
Any time we're going to something new, we can't just go out with the old and end with the new.
03:45
In many cases, there is a period of time where translation is needed,
03:49
or you have a system configured for I P B four, and you need to go to another network. That's I P V six.
03:55
At any rate, you find out you have networks with I P. V six and some with I P V six, and you'll figure out how to make that work as efficiently as possible.
04:04
One of the ways to do this is by running a dual stack.
04:09
That means you've got a system using IPTV four, and on that same system, you're also running I P V six.
04:15
You can run as many protocols in the background is needed
04:17
When you configure it, there's a binding order that you can use to choose your protocol of preference.
04:25
You can turn on both I. P V four and I P v six.
04:28
There's a type of Browder called s a T ap router designed primarily for that type of environment.
04:34
If you have i p v six traffic running on an I p V for network or vice versa,
04:41
I s a t A P can provide the additional addressing information and configure those pockets so that they can get to where they're going across. Whatever type of network is running,
04:50
you can take a look at the w X y Z encapsulated I P v four address here on the right,
04:59
you can also tunnel, which simply means wrap one type of protocol inside one of another.
05:03
There's a 6 to 4 tunneling protocol,
05:06
so your I P V six pockets are essentially placed inside your I P B four pockets.
05:12
They're then treated as I p v four pockets on the network
05:15
they received at the destination and converted back to at B B six.
05:20
This is not something that would be used behind an N 80 device. Rather, the idea is to go out to the external network to the Internet.
05:29
I've got internal I p v six traffic that I want to run across the I p V for Internet.
05:35
The next option is Tara Joe and Mary Jo
05:39
Territo from Microsoft and Merida for Lennox and UNIX.
05:43
Ultimately, the I P V six packets are sent based on UDP messages over a specific port. 35 44.
05:51
Inserting the I P B four pockets inside of UDP allows it to tunnel through a n A T device without requiring the use of I p V six addresses.
06:02
G R E or generic route encapsulation is a routing protocol that goes back prior to I p V for back to Apple talk of a TCP I p Network.
06:13
This is an encapsulation.
06:15
A link is created between devices from router to router, and various protocols can be encapsulated between those two points.
06:24
It doesn't have to be about HPV six and I p before
06:28
it's simply an encapsulation protocol that can work with both I P v six and I P v four.
06:34
Last but not least, we have one called 4 to 6, an alternative to 64. That's a different environment.
06:42
I've got I P B for traffic that I want to go to an I P. V six network
06:46
with 6 to 4. I have internal trafficking that's using I P V six that I want to send out to the public i p v for network.
06:55
You're rarely going to see that right now because, of course, the Internet is on I p before,
07:00
and we don't really need that conversion.
07:02
All of this becomes more or less relevant, depending on how popular I P V six becomes.
07:09
Currently, there has been a massive flocking to I P V six here in the States, even though it's been around for a while.
07:15
It depends what our environment looks like in the next few years,
07:18
with networking being done on the cloud. There are lots of different variables that come into play
07:27
that brings us to the end of module to.
07:30
We talked a lot about Ip addressing because it's such a crucial part of networking.
07:34
We looked at the basics of what an I P address is discussed, what the sub net masks do and talked about classical addressing and local versus remote.
07:45
We talked about local ad dressing being on my same network and remote addressing needing to go through a router.
07:50
Next we discuss special purpose I p address. Sing like a P I. P. A.
07:57
We talked about the loop back for troubleshooting unit cast, multicast and broadcast addresses and also discuss private Internal I PS, which we see a lot in the workplace.
08:09
We then moved to C I. D E R.
08:11
That's something people can have trouble with if they haven't worked through it before.
08:15
So I recommend going back to that section to review those videos and make sure you're solid.
08:20
You can expect to see plenty of questions about that on the exam, since they know it's something students sometimes struggle with
08:26
last. But at least we discussed some issues with the I P V six, whether or not it will ever be here and the different types of addressing and benefits of using it.
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