Introduction to Ethical Hacking

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7 hours 6 minutes
Video Transcription
Hey, everyone, welcome back to the course in this video. We're just gonna take a brief introduction to ethical hacking, So we'll talk about what ethical hacking actually is. We'll talk about different types of hackers. There are out there. We'll talk about some different phases of hacking, but that will be kind of a 10,000 ft or very general level approach. But we'll talk about that once we get to that part, and we'll talk about
the different types of box testing. So black box, white boxing, great box.
So what is ethical? Hacking? Well,
really, The simplest way to define it is legal hacking. So you have permission. It's either your own systems where you have permission in most cases, from an organization
and in the industry is not really referred to as ethical hacking. It's more commonly called penetration, testing or pen testing for short. And what we do, basically, as ethical hackers or really pen testers is we go to organizations. We use different tools and techniques. We have permission,
and we try to identify vulnerabilities
that could be exploited at that organization. Now what we do like a pen test, we normally have a specific time frame. We usually will have a specific Scopus faras systems that weaken touch. We have a Scopus faras what we can actually do. So some pen test might just be you go in,
you find vulnerabilities, and then you
report that back to the organization and you don't actually exploit those. You just say, Well, an attacker could exploit those. By doing this,
there might be limitations, right? So maybe we find specific exploits on a system or specific vulnerabilities, but we can't exploit them because those that type of exploiting isn't in our scope. Right? So you'll notice when you get out there in the real world with pen testing, there's a lot of different things in place. You always wanna have everything written
on design before you actually go touch anything.
But just for the purpose of, uh, of any certification exam, just know that ethical hacking is basically pen testing, penetration, testing, and you have permission. That's one of the key things to keep in mind there to actually go ahead and attack the systems.
So the different types of hackers out there on the black hat is the one you're thinking of. That's the more common Hollywood hacker. Criminal adversary. That's a black hat hacker, right? They've got a malicious intent. They're doing something. It could be stealing data. They could be coming in to steal money.
Um, could be a nation state attacking to get intelligence or cause destruction in some capacity.
You've got gray hat hacker is a good example of this was several years back. There were was a vulnerability in a lot of home routers. And so a great hat hacker again for the common good, right? Pushed out a nup date to all of these compromised devices. Basically hacked all these devices, push it out. Didn't have permission to do so.
But it's that gray area, right? It's for the greater good. But again, you don't have permission. So that's what makes it kind of that gray hat and then the white hat, right. You have permission. This is where the ethical hacker or pen tester um, in most cases would fall under.
And there's a lot of people that are all three of these.
You've got your hacktivists. So think of groups like anonymous, for example, that when there is maybe a social injustice or some political thing they'll do some action a lot of times this website defacement But it could be something else, depending on the circumstances. And you've got script, kiddies, these air, basically people that don't really know what they're doing or what's happening at a technical level. So,
um and example, that would be these Branch Amores the services. A script kiddie would
pay money to get ransom where
and then
just push it out there. They don't know really how they were ransomware functions. They don't know what is capable of. They don't know at a code level how to write their own ransomware or what to look for. And so that's a script, Kiddie. They don't really have the technical prowess to effectively attack systems themselves. So they have to use what other people create
and then our nation state Attackers. So you're a PT groups usually fall under this
North Korea, your Russian Attackers, your Chinese Attackers. Andi, these ones are typically gonna only put resource is towards a valuable target. So it might be getting intelligence. Normally, it is could be a big financial gain.
Um, could be a disinformation campaign. As we've seen with, like, presidential elections here in the U. S. So a lot of different ways that they may attack
These are the faces of ethical hacking. But keep in mind that
if I've done social engineering without doing recon, for example,
I'm just gonna go ahead and gain access, right? I'm gonna figure out how to get that employees to give me access, so you may not necessarily always follow these in order, but a lot of times you will, right? You're gonna get reconnaissance on your target on, then you'll identify
how you could actually get in. So again, if social engineering is a way you could skip scanning right,
you can probably skip re con. If you've already connected with someone inadvertently via social media at the organization, you'll exploit that relationship and gain access.
So let's talk about the different types of testing now as far as the box testing. So we got black box testing this one. You typically will not get any type of internal information at all about the target. So as a pen tester, you won't get internal info. This one best simulates a real adversary again, keeping in mind that for pen test, your usually limited in a time frame,
and it really adversary might take months or years to actually attack your organization.
We've got white box testing. This is one where you get basically open access. You might get some passwords. You might know the I P addresses. You might get basically this kind of the same acts you might get, like, local admin access. So you kind of get access that an internal employees might get.
Um, sometimes you get access to the source code or at least knowledge
of the source code and how the network infrastructure is You might get a network topology map.
You might know about
the production versus a test environment. So you basically just get kind of that insider information of somebody working at the organization Now, you might be hired to do white white by white box test, both internally and externally. So depending on the information you get, you may, they may have you simulate someone attacking the source code internally
and having to figure out
how they can defend against that. And also externally, right, you're more traditional pen test,
great box testing. You might get some things right, but not everything. So you might get some log in credentials, like maybe, um, a user name and password for a website Log in, or you might get it for the local admin account or something. And then from there you have to do things like privileged escalation to keep moving through the network.
You might also get a map of the network topology. You might get a kind of visualization of part of it
to identify some I P addresses and some systems, so this one usually get a little bit of information. But it's still you don't get all the information that you might need to quickly be able to attack the organization.
So that's a quick quiz question here for you.
This type of testing you typically have access or information that would simulate the insider threat. So some of that works internally at the company, so it's gonna be a white box, black box or gray box.
All right, so if you guessed white box, you are correct right again. That one really will simulate that insider threat. They might have information about the source code or how the network topology is. They might have certain user names and passwords. They might know I p address ranges, etcetera, etcetera. So that would be that white box test.
So this video, we just briefly covered what ethical hacking actually is. So again, just make sure you have a permission for any systems that you are attacking. We talked briefly about some of the types of hackers you want to know that stuff for? Um, if you decide to go take things like the EEC council ch exam, we also talk through some of the hacking phases again.
Don't focus on being stuck in any one phase because
depending on what kind of information you're getting, you might be able to skip to later phases. But generally speaking, that is the the step by step of kind of what you would do in a in an engagement. And then we also talked about the gray, white and black box testing
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