1 hour 39 minutes
Hello and welcome to this Callie fundamentals lesson. I'm very excited to be here with you today. And so we just got done working in the terminal and doing some things of that nature and that we're really going to focus on the file system. So you may have been asking yourself. How do
I better understand the file system? How do I know where things around? What do I need to understand?
Well, the good news is in this lesson, we're going to give you a high level understanding of the file system, not just with Callie, but any Lennox distribution that you're working with. And then, ah, high level understanding of permissions. And so to get us started. Let's touch on that color coding we discussed in the previous lesson.
Now there are a few other colors a cz well, a cz thes. But these are the ones we wanted to touch on with respect to this particular lesson. And so remember blue when we were looking at the desktop folder and things of that nature in our root directory, well, that represents
a directory. So if you see blue and this color similar,
that's a directory green is going to be executed ble or recognize data files. Sky blue is symbolic. Link files yellow with a black background is going to be devices. Pink is graphic images. Red is going to be archives, zips, things of that nature and red with a black background is going to be
broken links and things of that nature so
very easy there to kind of get into. And as you work more with the file system and through the distributions, Lennox or otherwise, you're going to see these colors a lot.
Now let's jump into the file system. So the limb IX file system follows the file system hierarchy standard R F H s. And in Callie's case, this is no exception. So here are a few key directories we want to touch on, and we'll look at a high level overview of this in a moment.
So Ben is where you're going to see basic programs. And so, as you can see here, we did a P W d in an l s of that bin folder
or directory, and it's got things like a less and in Kadir and essentially, when we were running those commands, it's looking here for the directions on how that works. And so that's got basic programs and things of that nature. And Ben and then route is where we had our desktop folder and where we'll have the basic
kind of images or anything that we save under our route account. It's going to be hearing our personal files in that root directory.
MNT is a temporary Mount Point directory. So if we mount any media or anything of that, nature is going to be showing up here, etc. Is configuration 1000 things of that nature, as you can see here with etc. L s What we found was like ice weasel and some other config files and profile information and what not
is going to be located in that Etc
directory And then Dev down here we've got devices on device files essentially that are going to be in this directory
now. Ah, high level overview of how the file system looks is represented here. So we started off in this root directory previously, and then when we did that, c d dot dot com in it brings us here and from here we were able to see all of these different points
in the system, and then we can navigate down and drill down into each of those.
And so, as we discussed earlier with, like, Ben, we've got a central user binaries here, so, like the L s command and make dinner and ping. And so, as you enter those commands in the terminal, it's referencing here for those. So if you were to accidentally delete to delete like Ping and then try to Ping later
shouldn't want because now you've deleted the reference point in the binaries that make it work.
And so same thing here, etc. And here has convict files. So, like, um, we've got different areas that you can see here that would have configuration files and things that nature. Espen has some essential system binaries, et cetera.
And so, as you're navigating through this and looking at the file system, you don't need to really memorize the layout.
Just know that you know, if you're having issues or your trouble shooting something and its command related, or if its configuration related, we'll get into, like how to make some changes in the configuration 1000 things of that nature later. So for now, I have a quick reference.
Be kind of aware of where things rat, but don't spend too much time trying to memorize everything.
quick check on learning. So as we were discussing earlier with colors and things of that nature of these in the file system, which one representative directory?
All right, so remember Green wasn't executed. Herbal
pink was a graphic image file
Red was an archive file.
Blue represents a directory. So if you see not scab blue but that darker blue that represents a directory like the desktop folder or something of that nature and then configuration files are located in which directory? So remember route was the personal files for us,
Dev was our device files and things of that nature
melt represented temporary mount points and things like that for media,
etc. Is where we had configuration files with respect to this file system. So all of that is good. But you may be wondering, what about permissions and things of that nature? I mean, has that crossed your mind? I know it's crossing mind, So let's jump into a quick overview on permissions Now don't get overwhelmed.
Just know that this
maybe a good quick reference. You can also use Google and find some represents references that are you No more your style. But looking below here we did a quick L s dash.
Nope. See, I did a cap there. That's not right. You can't do capitals L. A. And what that does is is it provides this output in the directory.
Now, when you're thinking of permissions, you've got 0 to 7 here, and each of these numbers gets higher and higher is the level of permissions as we go through here. So when we get to number seven that gives us read, write and execute permission. Now you'll notice that there are several groups of letters here, so don't worry about this on the end.
It's either black or D and D means that you've got a directory.
See that blue color there on the end when it's blank, it just means that it's not a directory. It's, you know, some other file type. So this is broken down into three sets, essentially here of letters and that's represented as user
or other. Now, as you're thinking about these permissions, I took the time here to kind of lamb out side by side. So looking at zero, it's representative. Such execute would be represented in each of these as an ex. Now it could be different. You can have any combination of these three user group and other
and the permissions like you know and group could be read, right? Execute. I could have nothing in user
and nothing in others. And so I can have a combination of any of these. Read, write and execute someone. We're looking here
at this particular at deny.
That means that there is read and write on the owner. So Oren w on. And then we've got just read
on the group and nothing on other so kind of keep them in mind. That's a high level dive into permissions. Use a reference to help you get through that. If you're thinking about inheritance and things of that nature, just think of it is going in this direction. So if you've got read right, execute under other and everything else is blank,
then no matter what the user group, you should be able to read, write or execute that file or directory.
And so this is is the equivalent of the Windows
kind of everyone. I'm sorry, handwriting here, but everyone essentially is an other. And then it's defined by group and then user, which is typically the owner and things of that nature. So go right to left when looking at these and defining what the true level of access is when you're working through those. But don't get hung up on permissions.
Just no. Zero through seven. As we get closer to seven. That's like full permissions
on any given area here, and it's broken down into user group and other. So with that in mind, let's do a quick check on learning
which number provides everything read, write and execute permissions.
All right, so remember
you. We didn't go through the numbers entirely, too, is right.
Six is read right,
which you should have caught was read, write and execute, which is all three. Everything that we can do. And that was represented as a seven.
with all of those things in mind and everything that you just learned, what did we pick up on? What should we remember? Well, we looked at colors the blue green, pink red directory execute herbal graphic image archive files So those colors are important as we navigate through the file system and we're understanding what things aren't what they mean.
We did a basic overview of the file system layout in the file hierarchy standard
and, ah, high level overview of permissions zero through seven. So I want to thank you for your time again today we've learned so much together, and I look forward to seeing you again soon.
Kali Linux Fundamentals
In this Kali Linux training course, you will learn about the industry-standard tool for penetration and security testing.