Welcome back in the last video, we did a quick overview of this second module, and in this lesson, some of the things you will learn are what else and is Then we're going to talk about what is the difference between information and data because they're an essential part of any investigation.
There will see where can we find an information? And we we will go through the Internet structure, since it is considered as our main source of open source intelligence.
Except it's an acronym that has two interesting words in it. The the word open and intelligence. I took two definitions off oh, sinned. And the 1st 1 which I like the most, comes from Wikipedia,
and I think that maybe best represents the open source intelligence definition.
Also, it is data collected from publicly available sources to be used in an intelligence context. I think that in this definition, the term context is the most important one, because data as itself is nothing actually pretty worthless.
But when you put it in the right contacts that it automatically becomes information that has a potential to be extremely valuable
and let me show you with an example What I mean by that
now I will tell you the difference between information and data. With an example, I will tell you a few numbers
Do these numbers mean anything to you?
These numbers that I have just wasted we can look at them as data just like words, letters, different characters.
There's some random values that I have just made up. But what if I told you they were the next winning lottery numbers? Now this data becomes information and it has a much bigger value, and this is the main difference. The context.
When you put data in the right context, it automatically becomes information.
The other definition that I have used for defining goes and derives from the U. S. Department of Defense, which states that all sentence print produced from publicly available information that is collected, exploited and disseminated in a timely manner
to inappropriate audience for the purpose off. Addressing a specific intelligence requirement.
Since English is not my first language, the word disseminated called my I. I looked it up in the Austin context and realized that it was basically reporting, which is probably the hardest part of hosted
before we continue. I would just like to share a fun fact, actually a seif act, as I like to call it
when you put O sent in Google trends with a historical view. How does the term term perform over time? You can see that in the last five years the usage has started to grow.
Just a little food for thought. Try it.
As I have previously mentioned, the word open innocent is often Lee getting people confused because when you say open, people tend to think it means free well. In this context, open does not mean free. As an example, you plan together publicly available information,
but with the use of some tool
that you're going to purchase. So when you look at it that way, the data and information that together maybe are coming from a free source. But you use the tool which you have paid,
and also I have to mention that open does not relate to open source software in any way.
An important thing to say that Open also refers to overt publicly available sources as opposed to covered sources which are hidden and confidential.
The last bullet on the slide is tightly connected to our recent investigations, since we will gather almost all of our information from the Internet. And that's why we can freely say that information is everywhere. Actually, enormous amounts of data are all over the place, but where
I'll show you an illustration of the Internet, which maybe you have seen before
since it is a pretty popular analogy off it. In the next slide, I will show you an illustration of the Internet, which maybe you have seen before, since it is a pretty popular analogy off it.
So where can we find all that information? A. Zay said. I will mention now the iceberg Internet analogy.
This is pretty cool, and I think it really points to the merit off it. People often confuse the terms like the Internet, Www Deep way up and the dark Web.
Those terms are related, but they mean different things, So I would like to demystify them for you. Now,
if you look at the Internet, we can say it is a physical connection that is consistent off all the computers around the world, and we look at it as the harder layer or or a big machine.
On top of that hardware layer, there is the software layer, which we call the www or the surface Internet.
This is where we go to different websites and search engines like Google being Yahoo and so on.
It basically means that Www is the type off software that runs on top of the Internet. The hardware
and all of that makes about 4% off total pages available.
This sounds wrong, doesn't it? Well, I also thought that to myself. But when you hear what is the deep Web, it will make sense. The deep Web, which is below the surface on the picture it basically it's basically older content that the search engines are not allowed to see. Those areas are usually password protected,
and search engines can go in
as an example. Take Facebook. How many content is password protected? Ah, lot, all the profiles and pages right?
The Deep Web also consents off all the archives, medical documents, circle documents and many more which l, which are all password protected when we get to Dark Web, which is on the bottom of this picture with all the scary things. Then we change the software that runs on top of the Internet.
It is not www or the Web,
rather onion pages, which are accessible via specialized browsers like Tour
Dark Web, his usual linked to criminal activity and really good illegal marketplaces. But both of them serve as a privacy preservers, and that is pretty. Discuss herbal, since there are two science sites off that coin, I won't go that technical in tow.
But I encourage you to learn about it, since you will probably use it in your tool arsenal for your ocean investigations.
Okay, where else can we find information
next? Their traditional mass media sources like television, newspapers, radio?
Let's say you read about something in the newspapers. You could also check other media sources like television, to maybe double check the information you have learned. Also listed as potential sources are books,
maps, journals, conferences, brochures, annual reports, different publications.
But I have also listed stickers
actually a car sticker, and I would like to show you an example about it from the information gathering perspective in the next slide.
This is the baby on board sticker. I will only briefly touch on this
here is a real picture off a car's rear end, which I took a while ago. Um, just for you to know, why is it in creation?
Baby on board sign on a car could elicit one or more responses. It could stop a criminal from targeting the house for fear off waking up the baby. Actually, as you can see on this sticker, we know that the target has probably two little Children
11 boy and one girl. Also, you immediately know their names.
Better photo means speeder in the car.
And based on that all information, someone could do a very good pretext for a social engineer attack via email. Since the bad guys know the targets family situation. In my opinion, those stickers are pretty much unnecessary. And I do not recommend using them
just as some additional information. There are also photo and video meta data.
This could be a very valuable source of information. Actually, For example, he took one photo and when you look at the photos exist data, the meta data, it could contain all kinds of information. Besides what is actually in the picture
information like, when was it taken with what kind of camera? What were the technical properties off the picture? And also, where was it taken? You could get the exact coordinates coordinates off the location, look it up on Google Maps. And compared to some other sources,
if your contacts is to validate was the person from the picture really there at that time?
This could may potentially make a good case
in this lesson. We went over the ocean. Definition learned. What is the difference between information and data? Where can we find all that information? With an interesting example. And we went over the Internet structure, which includes the Surface Web, the Deep Web and the scary dark Web.
In our next video, we'll talk about the ascent
types, so see you there.