Protocols and Topologies

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41 minutes
Video Transcription
Hello. My name is Dustin and welcome to networking.
We're going to go over some basics of computer networking, including protocols and apologies and modern networking will also be discussing some networking basics like the OS I model and the TCP I p model.
After that, we're gonna go over some common networking devices you may encounter setting up your home network or while on the job, Let's get started.
So again, some learning objectives for this module are the network protocols, different networked apologies and network architecture.
Some basic network plus information, including the OS I model and the TCP I model on the similarities and the differences between the two. And then we're gonna go over some network devices like routers, switches, firewalls and and ideas versus an I. P s
protocols. In tw apologies. In this section, we're going to go over what networking is and common networking protocols and apologies you may encounter.
So what is networking?
Networking, by definition, is the process of interacting with those to exchange information. Computer networking is exactly that. In order to exchange information, there needs to be some sort of process to share that information like a common language in modern networking. MS. Process of defined rules and conventions is called network protocols.
Modern protocols for computer networking mostly used packet switching methods to send and receive messages. These messages are in the form of packets.
Packets are messages that are divided into pieces, the Senate across the wire or wireless in the case of WiFi and then reassembled at their destination.
The most common network protocol family you'll encounter is the I. P Protocol family.
Many other network protocols, like TCP or UDP. HTTP and FTP all work together and integrate with the I. P Protocol.
The I P Protocol suite has the task of delivering packets based on their I P address, which is assigned in the header of a packet.
Because this relies on the I P address on the packets header I p defines packet structures that encapsulates the data.
So there's two big versions of the I P suite of protocols, and that is I P V four and I. P V six. A. Currently I P V four is still the dominant protocol of the Internet is that as of October of 2018 I P V six actually reaches about 25%
of all Internet traffic.
Wireless networking uses wireless protocols. It's important to remember that the I P Protocol family still applies here as well. But there are special protocols for wireless networks.
Another type of network pro protocols that are extremely important in modern networking are wrapping protocols and routing protocols are the rules that have been created for routers to communicate with each other, which allows modern networking to work
without routing protocols. Your packets would never be able to leave their network.
Most wireless works in the 2.4 gigahertz
or the five gigahertz range, and his people of varying network speeds.
Some examples of some common wireless networking protocols include 802.11 b, which is probably still the most prevalent wireless protocol.
Then we've got a tow to 11 G, which is a standard that improved upon the 802 11 be protocol.
After that, we've got the 802 11 A, which started using the five gigahertz range and then 802 11 c a. C m. Sorry, which is a newer protocol finalized in 2013 and you'll find this in most modern wireless phones, laptops and smart TVs.
One of the last protocols will mention that is used almost everywhere is Bluetooth.
Bluetooth also uses the 2.4 gigahertz range but transmits at a relatively low power, giving in a much smaller range than your typical WiFi. Approximately 30 feet or so
routing protocols.
Routers allow traffic toe, leave their network and continue on to other networks.
Every routing protocol has three basic functions. Discovery
Route management and Path determination.
Discovery is the process of identifying other routers on the network.
Route management keeps track of all the possible destinations, along with data describing the pathway of each like the distance and time
path. Determination is exactly that. Determining the best path to reach a destination.
There are two types of routing protocols that help determine which path is best
Link. State enables routers to build and track a full map of all network links.
Distance Factor allows routers to work with less information about the full network area,
and there are a couple different routing protocols. We're gonna go over the first is rip or the routing information protocol that was developed in the 19 eighties for use on small or medium networks. that connected to the network.
It was capable of routing messages across networks up to 15 hops or portions of a path
like devices
O S P. F or open Shortest path First was created to over come the limitations of rip. Like the 15 hop count restriction,
it's an open public standard available across many industry vendors. This is a link State protocol
E i g R P was developed as a successor to oh, SPF to improve computer configuration and better performance
than ah ah, SPF. This is a distance vector protocol.
I s I s or the intermediate system to intermediate system is very similar to oh SPF but it more It's more easily adaptable to specialize environments. It doesn't use the I P protocol sweet
B, G, P or the border. Gateway Protocol detects modifications to the routing tables and communicates these changes to other routers.
Typically, this is used by I S P S or Internet service providers to join networks together. It can be very difficult to configure, so it is a pretty specialized thing.
As we mentioned modern protocols for computer networking, mostly used packet switching methods to send and receive messages.
These message. Of course, air in the form of packets and packets are those messages that are divided into pieces and send across the wire or wireless and then reassembled at their destination.
Because these messages were divided into packets, The packets can then take different routes to the destination, which could be much more efficient than everything. Following that same path,
a typical packet contains three main portions. The header,
the footer
and the data.
The header contains instructions like the length of the packet, the packet number protocol, destination address and the originating address.
The payload or the data of the packet, is the actual data that's being sent like pieces of an email or an image.
The trailer of a packet or the footer typically contains information that tells the receiving device that it's at the end of a packet. It may include thesis, hear, see or cycling redundancy check, which helped determine if the full package has arrived without any errors.
For example, if you need to send an email to a friend, the email will first be broken into a fixed size, determined by the network that you're on
the network you're on uses fixed lengths so in this example will say it uses ah fixed link packet of one kill a bit or 1024 bits. So if your email is to kill obits, it would then send three packets because the header in the footer of the record
packet require some space
as well.
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