Networking Concepts

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Time
7 hours 50 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
8
Video Transcription
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>> Networking concepts.
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Make sure everybody understands
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the terms are going to use in
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networking and just answer
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questions about what it takes to make a network function.
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Let's take a look at the objectives.
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We're going to talk about the basics.
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Here's where we'll define
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those terms that we hear and take for granted.
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For example, the OSI reference model,
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a framework, a node,
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a host, a protocol, and a port.
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Even though these may seem like very basic terms,
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as you're getting into networking,
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you want to make sure you have
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a strong understanding of them.
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As I mentioned, the OSI reference model
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isn't something people just know automatically.
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It's a really important foundational idea
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as it applies to networking.
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We'll talk about what it is to have a framework
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and what the purpose of that framework is.
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We'll be looking at two frameworks,
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the OSI reference model and the TCP/IP model.
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These will help us understand
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networking at a bit of a deeper level.
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Then we'll move on to protocols and ports.
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Protocols are necessary in order to
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enable communication between hosts.
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They're basically a set of rules and regulations
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about how that communication is going to happen.
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It's important to look at some of
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the more common protocols.
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Some of those you may have heard of and some may be new.
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We'll also take a look in an upper level of
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network services, DHCP and DNS.
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We'll get into what some of these ideas are on
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a much deeper level as we move forward in the course,
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but to start, we just want to lay out the groundwork.
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We'll also talk about storage and
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our data and where it lives, so to speak.
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We can have storage on the network,
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we can have storage in the Cloud,
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we can have storage on a different network,
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and we'll look at some of those options.
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Then we're going to wrap up this section
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with remote access.
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Most of what we'll talk about in the class is going to
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reference you're physically connected
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to a local area network.
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But in the case of remote access,
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you might be connecting from
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a VPN or some other external source.
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How that works and the materials, equipment,
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and tools we need to make that
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operate will all be covered in this section.
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Jumping into network basics,
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the first question we have to ask is,
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what is a network?
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We take some of these things for granted,
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but I just want to be clear when we talk about a network,
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we're looking at a group of interconnected systems,
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and usually they're connected
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together for the purpose of sharing.
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Sharing data or sharing resources
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like maybe a printer or some other tools on the network.
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It's all about bringing these systems together and
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allowing them to access some of the same resources.
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In order to do that, we have to
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have the systems themselves,
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a framework that provides
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the structure for how we're going to
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communicate and the clients and
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the servers that both need operating systems.
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We'll have to think about protocols and how the data,
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like media, will traverse the network.
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The easy answer for media is cable.
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But we have to think about the airwaves too,
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because of wireless connectivity.
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Then we have our network connectivity devices
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like our hubs,
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switches, and routers.
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Then we have network services that
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put it all together and make it work.
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Starting out, the first thing to
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define after defining a network is a system.
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When we talk about a system,
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there are different elements
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working together for a common goal,
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which is a very broad definition.
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You can see I have a bit more of
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an in-depth definition on the slide.
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Interconnected components which transform, store,
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transport, or control data and or
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information for a particular purpose.
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I don't like to read definitions for
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you as I know you can read for yourselves,
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but if you think about that,
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systems is a very inclusive term.
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We've even got different types of systems.
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Honestly, I don't want you to worry too much
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about someone saying node versus host
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or host versus client because
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a lot of these terms are used interchangeably.
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For instance, if you look at node,
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it's defined as any addressable device on the network.
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That's your laptops or desktop computers,
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but it's also your routers,
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storage devices, or network attached storage devices.
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A cluster or all of these things.
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If you can address it or access
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it on the network, it's a node.
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A host is a type of node and
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that generally indicates a computer system.
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Types of hosts are servers or clients.
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Servers are computer systems,
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generally speaking, that provide
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a service like data or access to a printer.
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Any sort of service on the network like DNS and
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the clients are the ones that
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access the resources of that server.
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You can see there's not a huge difference
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between these terms,
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and people will say node or host.
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But for the most part, we're generally
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just referring to network devices.
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The one you will hear that we do usually make
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a discrepancy with is clients and servers.
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Think of clients for the most part,
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as end-user workstations when you're sitting at
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your desk and think of server
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as where you log on to the domain,
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access DNS, or your database or file server.
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What makes a network a network
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is often the operating system.
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I can have 15 client computers
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connected and running Windows 10 and I have a network,
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but I have what we used to call
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back in the olden days or as my son says,
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anything prior to 2010,
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a peer to peer network.
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We didn't have a formal domain environment.
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We just had a group of connected computers.
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We can do that with a client-based operating system,
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and those will be what you're most familiar with.
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When I say client-based operating system,
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I'm talking about Windows 10,
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Red Hat for Linux,
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basically just the client operating systems.
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When we move to a client server environment where we need
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a domain or VM created and we want centralized control,
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central login, and central security to have
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a true network environment that we see in the workplace,
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we need at least one.
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But likely, multiple servers
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running a network operating system,
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and that network operating system
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might be the latest version
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of Windows Server 2016 or 2020,
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Unix, or Oracle Solaris.
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Back in the day we had Novell,
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which is even in the olden days for me,
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but those are all network-based operating systems.
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Ultimately, with your network based operating systems,
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they create this virtual
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logical grouping of computers and
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clients that come on to the network and
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access the authentication server,
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which allows them onto the network.
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Usually, that authentication server passes out policy,
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manages access requirements to join
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the network, and validates credentials.
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The environments we're going to be
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working in today and focusing on
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throughout the class are domain based environments.
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You'll have client operating systems
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and you'll have a server that's
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the domain controller that's
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running the network operating system.
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