Network Security Architecture Part 2

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Time
8 hours 20 minutes
Difficulty
Advanced
CEU/CPE
9
Video Transcription
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>> Continuing on with network
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>> security architecture Part 2.
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>> The learning objectives for this lesson are to
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show how network segmentation improves security,
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to explain deperimeterization and
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how it relates to zero trust,
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and to demonstrate the use of
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Software Defined Networks in secure architecture.
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Let's get started. Network segmentation.
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Network segmentation simply means
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breaking a network up into smaller parts.
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But for security, the reason we might want to do
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this is that some parts of our network
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may contain data that we don't want
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necessarily want everyone on
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the network having access to,
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so for example, a corporation's,
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HR department may need to
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be on its own separate segment of
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the network so that it's separated from everyone else.
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Another reason for security
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that you might want to segment
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your network is that if
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one part of the network would have become compromised,
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it wouldn't bring down the rest of the network.
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We can accomplish this through a variety of technologies.
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The first is subnetting,
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simply breaking the network into smaller pieces.
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The next is virtual LANs or VLANs.
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These are software-defined and they're usually
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performed by your managed network switches.
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This allows for one device
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to separate your network traffic.
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We can also use a screened subnet.
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This is placing two firewalls on either side of the DMZ.
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The firewall that faces the
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outside is known as a screening firewall
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and the one that faces the
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inside is known as a choke firewall.
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We can also use environments
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to help us segment our network.
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A staging environment is where we
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create an exact duplicate of
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our production environment for
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the purposes of testing new software,
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security patches, hardware, or setting changes that we
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might want to use before
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pushing it out to our production environment.
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We could also use a guest environment
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which is an isolated network,
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completely removed from our production network
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to allow guest access.
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We can use access control lists
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to help us with segmentation.
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An access control list simply allows data to flow
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or to be denied based on
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the rules that are set up in the control list itself.
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In networking, this is usually handled by
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switches and routers who may or
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may not allow access to
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data based on their own individual ACLs.
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We can also use a jump box
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to help us segment our network.
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A jump box is a hardened and monitored system
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that is used to perform administrative functions.
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The reason this is a really smart
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>> thing to do is that in
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>> larger environments you may have many devices
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that need to be configured, such as firewalls,
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switches, routers,
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and you don't want to
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perform those from your own workstation,
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the one that you're checking email on
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or browsing the web or that thing.
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A jump box is one that you would log into remotely,
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perform all the functions from there,
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and then when you're done, you come
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back to your regular workstation.
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What this does is it allows
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one device to have all the credentials,
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rather than having it on a workstation that
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has a higher chance of being compromised.
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We can also air gap,
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which is when we physically remove
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and disconnect a host from any network.
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It's not connected to a network,
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it's a lot harder to get to.
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We also have a peer-to-peer environment.
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These are decentralized networks that provide
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services only when you're connected to them.
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An example of that today will be
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the Tor network, but if you're old school like me,
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you might remember Napster.
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Cloud-based network segmentation.
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The first thing we can use is micro-segmentation,
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which is isolating workloads from each other
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and then we protect those workloads individually.
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We can use virtual private Clouds or virtual networks.
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This allows for creating
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Cloud resources within a private network.
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The last part is Nac lists,
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pronounced nackles, but it
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stands for network access control.
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These are used to control
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inbound and outbound traffic between VPCs.
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Think of these as just simply ACLs
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for your Cloud segmentation.
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We can also use security groups.
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It's a virtual firewall that limits
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inbound and outbound traffic
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to a particular Cloud instance.
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Regions are the physical location of
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our data centers in a globally distributed Cloud.
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With Cloud-based network segmentation,
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we have data zones.
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A data zone simply describes the state and
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the location of the data
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and how to isolate and protect it.
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The first is our raw zone.
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This is where data is collected from multiple sources.
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Then we go to our structured or curated zone.
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In this zone, the data that was collected in
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the raw zone is checked for
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quality and then it's reformatted
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for users to make use of later.
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Then we have our analytical zone
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and at this zone is where the data is ready
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to be used by
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the different users for
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their particular purposes, such as reporting.
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Software defined networking.
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The first thing you have to understand with
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software defined networking is
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to understand what a plane is.
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Well, a plane is
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just an abstract model that was created to help
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us understand software defined networking and in SDN,
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we have three different planes.
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The first plane is our control plane.
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The control plane decides on the traffic priority and
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its security and where the data should be switched.
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The data plane is the one that handles
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the actual switching of the data and routing of traffic,
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but it also controls ACLs.
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Finally, we have our management plane,
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which monitors traffic and
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conditions of the overall network.
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Think of this as making sure
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everything is working well together.
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We have three different approaches to SDN.
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The first is open SDN,
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which makes use of open source and open
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standards so that we're not
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locked into one particular vendor.
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We can also make use of a hybrid SDN,
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which uses SDN along
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with traditional networks, and they work together.
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Finally, we have our SDN overlay.
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This uses our existing hardware with the software,
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and it allows us to create and
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manage new virtual networks.
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The overlay is what's responsible for
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moving data across physical network infrastructure,
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but the SDN is the one managing it all.
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The network hardware is moving the data,
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but it is controlled by the SDN.
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No longer the switches or routers are in control,
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the software is the one moving everything
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around or controlling the moving.
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Deparimeterization.
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Up until recently,
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you could think of our networks as a castle.
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Castles have high walls.
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They have towers to watch over everything.
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They have gates to control access so
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that you can know who's coming in and who's going out.
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This is how our networks were.
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We had firewalls, intrusion detection systems,
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and we were very focused on users and assets.
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However, the world is
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changing and with that change and that access to data,
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we've had to come up with a new system.
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Some of the trends that are helping
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pushing us towards that,
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our remote work, mobile usage in the Cloud adoption.
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With mobile usage, now we
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have devices that are outside of
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our network that need access to our data at all times,
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and with Cloud adoption,
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it's a similar thing where our data is no longer
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behind our closed walls or castle walls,
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it is now on a server somewhere else.
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Our data being scattered across
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the world and then also having need of it
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24/7 has changed our approach to controlling
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access to our data and that leads us to zero trust.
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You can think of zero trust as never trust,
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always verify, and always assume breach.
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Every connection and request
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is individually evaluated, and then validated.
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It focuses on resources rather than users and assets,
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and if you'd like to read more about zero trust,
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you can read the NIST special publication,
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800- 207: Zero Trust Architecture.
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Network Integration.
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There are a lot of different things that
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impact how our networks are integrated together,
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so for example, with peering,
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we're connecting virtual private Clouds
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together with a VPC peering connection,
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but we also have mergers and
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acquisitions to think about when
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a company buys out another one
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or it merges with another one,
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we have to find a way to
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integrate those networks together.
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We also have directory services.
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This is similar to a database that
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contains attributes for users,
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security groups,
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and devices for the purposes of privilege management.
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The active airectory for
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Microsoft is a directory service.
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We also have federation.
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This is simply trusting the accounts
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created and managed by another organization.
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Identity providers and testing.
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This is a four-step process.
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I'm going to break it down to make
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it in its most basic form.
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If a user wants to access
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a service or data at a service provider,
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they will be redirected to an identity provider.
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The user authenticates with
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the identity provider and they will
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receive an attestation of identity.
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This is usually in the form of a token.
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The user then takes that token
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or attestation and presents it
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back to the service provider
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and then based on that token,
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the service provider will allow access to the user.
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Let's summarize what we did.
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We discussed various ways we can
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segment networks, including Cloud networks.
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We discussed software-defined networks and their parts.
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We went over deperimeterization and how that is
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shifting us towards zero trust and finally,
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we went over the different types of network integration.
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Let's do some example questions.
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Example 1, what type
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of device would be described as being
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a hardened and closely monitored system
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for performing administrative tasks?
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Jump box. We use these
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so we can configure routers, firewalls,
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and switches from a hardened system,
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rather than doing it from our own workstations.
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Number 2. What type of environment
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is a mirror of the production environment and is used
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to test the changes to hardware and software
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before implementing those changes
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on the production network?
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Staging environment. Example 3.
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What process is described as isolating the workloads
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themselves from each other
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and protecting them individually?
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Microsegmentation.
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Finally, Question 4.
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What type of architecture considers everything to be
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external and follows the never trust,
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always verify and assume breach?
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Zero trust architecture.
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I hope this lesson was helpful to you,
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and I'll see you in the next one.
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