a few attacks to talk about before wrapping up this section.
The topic is spoofing and spoofing is all about impersonation.
Usually when we talk about people Impersonating each other, we consider that social engineering. But when it's a technical impersonation, we call it spoofing.
Anything that requires a source address can be spoofed.
Often we have I P addresses that are spoofed to make it look as if traffic comes from a different host
many times on switches. As a security measure, we use Mac filtering and say only these Mac addresses can connect. But Mac spoofing is very easy.
Does the very basic self care tool allows you to modify the Mac address?
Caller ID emails, even locations can be smoothed? This is why we never really rely on a single factor of authentication.
We always want users to provide IP address and a password
I P addresses. Mac addresses in Geo location are often considered somewhere you are because you're at a specific system or location.
Brute force attacks are extremely common, and it refers to passwords. I'm trying every set of characters in a file, and I can also use dictionary attacks, which try every character combination in a file.
Dictionary attacks used to be trying all the words in the dictionary, but they've extended beyond that.
We also have rainbow tables that are attempting to find the hash that's generated by the password.
The hash is a virtual password, any type in your password to create the hash. The theory is that your only password you would create the hash that would gain access to the resources.
If I can find another character combination that produces the same hash, I get the same degree of access.
We talked about that much more in the security plus class. That's a little bit of a teaser, but those are valid attacks on passwords.
It's similar for keys. These same ideas continue on with keys or with passwords, and the tools are getting faster and smarter.
The graphics processing units that come on video cards today is one of the biggest developments in the realm of cracking passwords and keys.
The processing power that those devices have is absolutely amazing.
I will confess I'm somewhere near 50. I'm not saying I'm 50 but I'm somewhere near the guys that grew up with like space invaders. Asteroid pitfall in the original pitfall with the stick figure guy was made up of about 12 pixels. All in all, he strung on vines and dropped across alligators. That's what we had in my time.
I was out and saw a TV that looked like a football was going on
and I could tell us the Baltimore Ravens across the mall.
I was curious to where they were losing, too, so I walked over. It wasn't the region's plane. It was mad in 2021 but the graphics were so insane.
The power is necessary to render those kinds of graphics and harness the power yields a capability that is extraordinarily powerful.
Breaking passwords is much easier and quicker today.
Any eight character password can be broken in just a matter of a couple of days. We want to strengthen our passwords. The way we do that is we lengthen them and think about seating or assaulting our passwords. That's adding additional randomness. That's also one of the things that we talk about insecurity plus
villains. We talked about the lands back in the network infrastructure chapter and how we can take these broadcast domains and extend them across switches
when we move from switch to switch, we have what's called a trunk that connects these devices and connect them to routers.
At any rate, when it comes to the island hopping, what happens is a host in one villain is able to escape and access another villain. The heart and soul of violence is isolation.
When that isolation can be compromised, that's a security concern.
Sometimes that can happen by having a rogue switch connecting into a trunk import and impersonate a legitimate switch.
Sometimes it can be done through a process called tagging.
Tagging is necessary to help us switch, understand what traffic goes out, which port.
This is actually a fairly sophisticated concept. This is almost like a Cisco course to really get into. The heart and soul of this
for us are going to think about the island hopping as being able to escape one villain and access another
that's spanning two domains, or trust, which should never be allowed without traffic inspection.
Then our man in the middle attacks man in the middle attacks can be active or passive.
If you think about sniffing the network, I'm looking at traffic as it's going across the network that's still a man in the middle attack, but its passive. I'm not doing anything, just observing.
Now I can escalate that to a session hijack or TCP hijack when I take that information that I've learned, like session information, and I use that in order to resume a session on other systems. Behalf
then usually I disconnect the original system, the actual system.
What's happening is I'm stepping in place of a legitimate communication, and I'm resuming it as if it was just someone that's already authenticated.
That happens a lot of different levels.
There are all sorts of ways with Web. Traffic usually happens when session information is passed across the network in plain text and the attacker gets that information, modifies their data, contained that session information
man in the middle attacks and take advantage of what already established session and either eavesdrop or inject traffic as it's used as an extension of impersonation
that wraps up our section on common attacks, of which there are a lot. This is really just the tip of the iceberg.
We looked at things like denial of service and distributed denial of service again. The purpose is to knock a system either offline or to render it unable to process its normal requests.
Social engineering is about impersonation trickery, and it's about me convincing you that I should have access to a system or to a location or some sort of access that I shouldn't have.
This is really prevalent.
Social engineers are incredibly sharp, successful, and they play off a lot of characteristics of people wanting to help.
Also, things like being able to be intimidated, relatively easy, wanting to please and several other personality traits social engineers exploit.
When we talk about poisoning, poisoning is usually modifying cash. We see that in DNS poisoning in AARP poisoning. It's all about redirection.
We also had farming as a DNS attack.
Rogue devices on the network, back in the wireless chapter, talked about the dangers of rogue access points and evil twins.
Those can be used a man in the middle attacks. We also talked about villain hopping or a villain escape, which means that through some mechanism or vulnerability, an attacker is able to move from one island to the next, gaining access to information that's part of a separate domain and a separate security structure