Overview: Injection Flaws

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Time
2 hours 54 minutes
Difficulty
Intermediate
CEU/CPE
3
Video Transcription
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>> Let's talk about number 3 of
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the OW-ASP Top 10 2021 injection.
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Our learning objectives are to describe
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the changes from OW-ASP Top
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10 2017 to 2021
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and explain the CWEs that make up injection.
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What changed from 2017 to 2021?
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We can go back even further.
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We can go back all the way to 2007 where
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injection was number 1 of the OWASP Top
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10 and it has remained in that position this whole time
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until 2021 is now
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knocked down to the number three position.
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That's a big deal.
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As I talked about in the introduction,
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we have a whole lot more CWEs now.
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Instead of there only being for CWEs mapped to injection,
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we now have 33.
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The other big thing is cross-site scripting,
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which had its own category in 2017,
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is now part of injection.
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Cross-site scripting is injection,
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so it makes sense to me.
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What are the factors? Let's compare
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the factors from broken access control,
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which is number 1.
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With injection. They have
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about the same number of CWEs mapped to them.
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Injection has 33,
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whereas broken access control has 34.
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If we look at the max incident rate though,
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it's a lot higher with broken access control.
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The max incident rate is about 56 percent,
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whereas with injection it's about 19 percent.
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The other big thing is that the average weighted
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exploitability and impact is higher with injection.
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The average weighted exploit is 7.25 here,
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whereas with broken access control it's
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6.92 and the impact is 5.93 with broken access control,
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whereas with injection it's 7.15.
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There's more severe exploit
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ability impact with injection.
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The other thing is what makes
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broken access control the number 1,
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is there's more occurrences.
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There's 318,000, a little over 318,000.
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Total occurrences of broken access control,
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whereas with injection it's about 274,000.
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The other thing is the total CBEs map to
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broken access control are 19,000 whereas with injection,
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we have a lot more at 32,000.
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There are a lot of CWEs.
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What I wanted to highlight were the
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four that OS had called out in 2017.
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Now you can see there's a whole lot more.
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They're almost chronological. You have 74,
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75, 77, 78.
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They're basically taking everything that has
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anything to do with injection and
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throwing it into this category.
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Command injection, which we'll talk about
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later was one of the ones in 2017.
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You can see that 78 is very similar to
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that improper neutralization special elements
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used in an OS command injection.
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Very minute, very small changes between CWEs,
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but now they've throwing everything into this.
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You can also see cross-site scripting is now
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in here, CW-80 CW-87.
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We can also see that SQL injection was there
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before CW-89 was in 2017,
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it's still there in 2021
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along with a whole bunch of other injections.
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[inaudible] injection was talked about in 2017,
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as you can see, it's still here in 2021.
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I wanted to highlight this deprecated CWE-100.
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I'm really not sure why lost included that.
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In less than their data aggregation,
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some people had mapped CWE-100 to whatever was found.
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It's interesting to me that they would keep
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a CWE that's deprecated,
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but I wanted to call that out.
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As you look through this list of
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all the CWEs mapped to injection.
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Again, CWE-564 was in 2017.
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Is still here in 2021
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along with a whole bunch of other CWEs.
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We're rounding the corner here at
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our 33rd, which is CWE-917.
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Improper neutralization of special elements
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using an expression language statement.
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Expression language injection is there again now in 2021.
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From a very high level,
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what is in an injection attack?
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Let's say that you come across a web form
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that asks you for your contact information on a website.
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If you enter your name,
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if you enter your address and if you enter
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your phone number and email and things like that,
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is processed by an underlining back-end database.
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Now let's say that data is processed in
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an unsafe way where input is not sanitized.
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You can enter raw SQL queries into
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that form and interact directly
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with the database. What does that mean?
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That means perhaps if we're
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sticking with the contact information,
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if you want to use something like SQL map,
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if you see it's vulnerable,
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you can then enumerate the underlying databases.
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You can also find things like usernames and
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passwords depending
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on what information is in the database.
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Maybe there's a way to login to
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this application and you're able to
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find admin credentials and things like that.
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The other dangerous thing I like to
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talk a lot about impact.
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The impact is really important
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when we're talking to our stakeholders.
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As the impact from
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injection vulnerabilities, the impact,
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if we're talking about SQL injection here specifically,
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is again enumerating the underlying database,
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but also being able to interact with it.
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I can modify data.
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I can delete data,
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I can even put a shell.
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If I can write data into the database,
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maybe I can create
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a web shell and then get onto the server itself.
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You can do that also with things like command injection.
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You can get on the server and do a whole bunch of
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malicious things depending on
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the permissions that you have.
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That's why injection is such a series of
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vulnerability is the impact and exploit-ability is
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so high is that you can get onto the server
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and interact directly with the database,
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with the server and cause a bunch of damage.
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In summary, I've explained the changes from
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OW-ASP Top 10 2017 and even before that.
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Because injection has been around for quite some time,
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having the number 1 seat in the OWASP Top 10
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now dropping down to number 3 in 2021.
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I've also described the CWEs that now make up injection.
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