Hi, I'm Matthew Clark and this is less than 3.2
I o t architectures stages part one.
In this lesson, we will look at the different coyote architectures stages will investigate different coyote device types, including sensors, actuators and tags.
And we'll discuss security concerns around this topic. So let's get started.
This is a depiction of a simple coyote architecture. Er it represents the four stages of I O T architectures or I O. T building blocks
from the left. To the right, you have the i O. T. Things
followed by a data acquisition mechanism,
followed by Edge I T, which will define better in a moment.
And lastly, we have cloud services or the Internet.
You can see that the data flow typically goes from the left to the right from the i O. T. Device to the Internet,
and control flow goes from right toe left from the Internet to the I O. T. Device.
Let's talk about the first stage, the first stage of things, the sensors, the actuators and the tags.
It's possible to process data at all four stages.
However, data processing at this stage will be limited by the I o T. Device Hardware
communication will include real time communication or scheduled communication where the device wakes up. It's set intervals to save on battery life.
Most likely these devices will be are set up to use a pan or personal area network such a zig B Bluetooth low energy or six lo pan.
For sensors that do not require Gateway, they can connect directly to the Internet, most likely usable land protocol.
The second stage is data acquisition, or gateways, and this includes data, aggregation, measurement and control.
The use of layers and data acquisition occurs here.
These help to offload capabilities from individual coyote devices and provide a centralized communication.
Some of their features include reliability, connectivity, manageability and security.
The third stage includes the Edge, I T R analytics and pre processing.
This includes processing large amounts of analog data and pre processing. That data provides pre analytics.
This stage also is responsible for converting analog to digital prior descending to the cloud.
The fourth stage includes the cloud services were true analytics management and archiving occur. Thes includes data centers, cloud storage and cloud analytics services.
So on stage one includes sensors, actuators and tags. Let's start with sensors.
Sensors collect data from the physical environment. They could be embedded in the device itself or be a wireless standalone object.
An actuator interacts with the environment. These work with sensors to transform data into physical action. An example could be a simple as an actuator, turning on the light when someone enters a room. Or it could be more complex, such as with a medical device pacemaker,
where sensor monitors the heart
and the I. O T device processes data from that sensor to determine when to pace. And an actuator would be the electrodes to deliver a pacing impulse to the human heart.
And then we have tags. What do we mean by tags? We typically don't talk about tags and i o T environment, but they play a very important role in this layer of the i o T ecosystem.
He's the tools used by I O. T. At the physical layer.
They could be used in applications such as industry 4.0 or inventory management, our customer registration or device on boarding.
They could be a cure code on a mobile device that an I o. T camera scans.
So what type of sensors are there?
Well, basically their arm or sensor types, and we really have timeto list. And this is just a small sampling of the types of sensors that are out there.
Um, we have accelerometers, humidity, sensors,
gas sensors, temperature sensors, pressure sensors, uh, even soil moisture sensors. Basically, if there's a way to detect or measure something, then it's gonna make its way into an I o. T. Device.
So here's the drawing about how sensors and actuators work together, so a sensor is not an actuator.
Um, you have to collect stage in this example of, let's say, a building fire system.
Sensors detect a change in the heat, and that could be a carbon monoxide sensor. Or it could be a heat sensor.
Most far, President prevention and monitoring systems have multiple types of sensors.
The next stage will be communicate the sensor that communicates with the control system,
and then you have analyzed where the control system within analyzed the data based on predetermined rules.
And then, of course, the next stage is acting where the control center system would send a signal to the actuator to turn on the sprinkler system, so it goes from sensor to control system to actuator.
If you were to map all this out of a four stage coyote architecture drawing like the one that we used to the very beginning of the lesson, you would want to send that decision all the way to the Internet, right? Determine whether there's a fire.
Um, you would want that to act as close to the sensors and actuators is possible. You'd want that done no later than the edge processing component of that
just a. There's many different types of sensors. There are many different types of actuators have electricals, actuators, hydraulic, pneumatic, thermal and even magnetic.
So let's talk about tags. So there's different types of tags from bar codes and Q R codes, which use line of sight reading tow R F I. D tags
that used radio ways.
There's different types of R F I D tags. There's passive tags and internal battery tags. The passive ones tend to last forever. They're relatively cheap,
the internal battery ones. There are some that are active on reading, and they tend the last 1 to 4 years and continuously active ones, or last about 1 to 12 months. They're pretty expensive compared to the other ones,
but tags. They have various uses. You can use them. Thio Uniquely identifying item. You can use them for inventory tracking, like trying to find a medical device within a hospital or even personnel tracking either employees badges for logging in and out or for trying Thio.
Determine whether or nurses spending adequate amount of time
doing her floor rounds with a critical care patients.
So let's talk about the security concerns with sensors, actuators and tags.
Well, the first one that you have is a replay attack. That inaction can be replayed either on the sensor or an actuator. Uh, in order to get behavior to happen that you wanted to happen, or in order to change data or information.
A timing attack is a different type of attack that can also occur.
Eavesdropping is is a very riel attack, especially when the communication is an encrypted, uh, between the sensors and actuators within that architecture, ER
but in its are huge Well, I'll say this a lot. Don't feed the bottom yet, right? Don't do things like that will enable botnets to take over mindless drones of legions and armies of I O T devices
Andan. Another one is unauthorized access, right? If you don't securing access appropriately, you reusing passwords are not even requiring passwords.
Uh, and unauthorized access is a very really security concern.
So in this lesson, we discussed coyote architectures stages. We took a deep dive into the unknown world of the first stage of I o T architecture er. Specifically, we looked at sensors and their roles and examples actuators and their role in relationship to sensors and tags And how those are utilized in the I o T
I'll see you next time.