Apache Web Server (Demo)

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Time
21 hours 25 minutes
Difficulty
Intermediate
CEU/CPE
21
Video Transcription
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>> Hello, Cybrarians. Welcome back to
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the Linux plus course here at Cybrary.
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I'm your instructor Rob Goelz.
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In today's lesson, we're going to be
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discussing the Apache Web Server.
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Upon completion of this lesson,
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you're going to be able to install
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the Apache Web Server role in both CentOS and Ubuntu,
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and you'll be able to locate
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the Apache configuration files.
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Let's go ahead and get started with some demo time.
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Here we are in our CentOS environment to start today.
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To install Apache on CentOS,
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we actually have to install the httpd package.
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Of course, we do that with yum install httpd.
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Now, since I'm running this as my user,
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I actually have to use sudo to elevate
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my permissions and become
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root in order to do the install,
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so I'm going to do that now and type in my password.
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There we go. If we hit Y,
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we're going to install all these packages.
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Httpd and remember,
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yum will install all the dependencies
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as well, so we'll hit Yes.
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Now, this is going to download and
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install all these packages that we need on the system.
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Now, if we give this just a minute after it's complete,
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what we can do next is look and see
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the files that it actually
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installs and we can see that it's done.
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Let's clear our screen by typing clear,
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you can also hit Control L to do that.
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What I'm going to do now is I'm going to type
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in rpm -ql,
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and I'm going to do httpd
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and then I'm going to pipe that to less.
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Really what I'm doing here is I'm using
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the rpm command and I'm using the -q option to
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query the list of httpd files that were installed,
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and then I'm using
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command redirection and piping it to less,
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so it's not just a mess of gibberish on our screen,
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we can actually page through it.
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There we go. We can see all of the files that were
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installed with httpd package, which are quite a few.
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We'll then just quit out of that.
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Now, let's take a look at the configuration file.
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The configuration file that
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you would be looking at and working with when
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you're talking about httpd
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is etc/httpd/conf and then it's httpd.conf.
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If we look inside of this file,
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we can see a lot of good information.
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For example, we can see the port that the server is
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listening on is port 80 by default.
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If we wanted to change that to port 443,
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we could, and then we can set it up to use
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SSL certificates as well.
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We can also see that it's running as
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user Apache and group Apache down here.
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Then perhaps most importantly,
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as we go down through this file,
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we can find the document root, which is var/www.
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That's going to be the content directory
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where you're going to find everything.
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Let's go ahead and quit out of this file.
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To start Apache, we can start it with
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systemctl start httpd and hit Enter,
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and then, of course, I'm not root,
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so I need to type in my password,
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probably should have run that as sudo.
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But now we can do a systemctl status
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and see the status of httpd,
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and we see that it is active and running.
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Now, the very last thing that we can do is we can
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actually open a browser,
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on this system, we're going to open Firefox.
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We can open this browser to
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the just the loopback address of this system,
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which is going to be 127.0.0.1,
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and then what we should see is a message
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displayed from Apache saying that it's installed.
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There we go,
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we see an Apache HTTP test server and the test page.
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Now, let's take a look at Ubuntu.
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Here we are in our Ubuntu environment and
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installing Apache in Ubuntu is a little bit different.
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For one thing, the package is actually called Apache2.
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We can do an apt install apache2
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to install the Apache HTTP server on here.
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Again, I need to be sudo to do this, so let's do that.
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I type in my sudo password,
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my user password to become root temporarily,
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and we say yes, we're going to go ahead and install
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this and we're going to update and download everything.
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We see our lovely progress bar at the bottom obviously.
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Then once that's done,
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we'll take a look at the files that were
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installed here. That's done.
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I'm going to hit Control L
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to clear the screen and bring us
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back up to the top so we
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have more real estate to work with.
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Now, remember on an Ubuntu system
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or any kind of Debian system,
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we're going to be talking about working with
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DEB package, DPKG.
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What we can do to see the files
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that were part of the Apache2
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package that got installed,
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we can do a dkpg -l apache,
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and then I'm just going to go ahead and
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pipe that to less just like
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we did with the httpd package.
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Now, we can see all the files
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and package and other things that
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were installed along with the Apache2 package.
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On Ubuntu, the main configuration file
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for Apache2 is in a different place.
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Instead of it being in etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf,
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here it is in etc/apache2 and it's apache2.conf.
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If we hit Enter in there,
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we can go through here.
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The biggest thing we'll probably
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find it here as well is going to be
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the content location on this.
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If we scroll down, we can
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see a bunch of different things in here.
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Generally, what we're going to
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see are the directory like
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var/www and var/www HTML is going to be the directory.
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We can also see some other files
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in this etc/apache2 directory.
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If we just do an ls on here,
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we can also see that we have ports.conf.
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Let's take a look at that file.
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What we need to know about working
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with Apache2 is that it has
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another file setup for the ports to listen to.
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When we saw listen on port 80 in one file,
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in httpd, in Apache,
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it's actually configured in a different file,
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and it looks for that SSL module
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to be loaded to listen on port 443.
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Let's go ahead and quit out of this file.
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Now, we can check the status of
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this Apache2 with systemctl status apache2,
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and we can see that it's actually loaded and running.
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The thing is that when you install Apache using app,
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it actually just goes ahead and
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starts it up and starts it running,
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and it's actually even enabled it for us to start up.
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You can see that right up here it says it has enabled.
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One other thing we need to do though just to
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ensure that we're going to be able to use this,
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is we actually have to go and set this up in
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the uncomplicated firewall and
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verify that we have that set up and open for Apache.
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We can do this by running
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ufw app list to see what's available.
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We can see all the different packages or
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applications that are available in the ufw.
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What we'll do is we'll do sudo ufw allow,
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and we're going to allow Apache
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and then hit Enter and it's adding existing rule.
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Now, we should be able to use our browser,
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again, our Firefox web browser,
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and get to that 127.0.0.1 address,
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and we should see our Apache Ubuntu
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default page, and we do.
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With that, we've reached the end of
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the lesson here today.
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In this lesson, we covered installing
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the Apache Web Server role in CentOS and Ubuntu,
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and then we took a look at the Apache
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configuration files on both systems.
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Thanks so much for being here and I look
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forward to seeing you in the next lesson.
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