4.1 Disk Storage
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7 hours 31 minutes
Hello again. And welcome back to Cloud Architecture Foundations. This is module 4.1 disc storage, but not so much platters and actuators, but disperse formance transfer rates I ops and dis protection Raid. So if you're ready, let's start writing the disc.
So last time we had an introduction to storage
and we learned a little bit about the trends of storage, including the adoption of cloud storage. In this video, we're gonna look at spinning disks, but we're primarily gonna focus on solid state or flash drives, which are the real trend in distorts today.
And we're gonna learn about raid redundant to rave independent discs, a method of data protection through described energy and by writing data across multiple disks. So if you lose the disc,
you can recover. So if you're ready, let's stripe across multiple disks.
The key components for hardest driver. The platters spindle read right heads, actuator arm assembly and the controller board, the Input output operations or IO operations, and a hard disk driver performed by rapidly moving the arm across the rotating floating flat platters coated with magnetic particles.
Data is transferred between the disk controller and magnetic planners through the Reed right head, which is attached to the arm.
Data can be recorded and erased on the magnetic planners any number of times.
A typical hard disk drive consists of one or more flat circular desk called planners, and the data is recorded on the disks in binary zeroes and ones. The set of rotating platters is sealed in a case called the Head Disco. Simply, H D A. A platter is a rigid round disco did with magnetic material in both service's top and bottom.
The David is encoded by polarizing the magnetic area or domains of the disc surface.
The number of platters in the storage capacity for each platter determines the total capacity of the drive the actuator arm assemblies where the reed right heads were mounted. There is one actuator arm but multiple read right heads for all the platters on the drive top and bottom of each platter that move across the planners simultaneously.
The spindle is another important component of the hard disk drive. The spindle connects all of the platters and is connected to a motor. The motor of the spindle rotates with a constant speed. The disk platter spins at a speed of several thousands of revolutions per minute rpm's common spindle speeds or 5400 rpm, 7200
in 10,000 and 15,000 rpm drives.
The faster the spinning rate, the faster the reed right operations can be performed. The advantage of spinning disc is that they're inexpensive, and computing systems now provide the hot swappable capabilities of replacing drives in line. When one fails, meaning you don't have to power down the whole computer to replace the drive. However,
we're at the top of the performance criteria spinning disc technology can give us,
and a new type of storage drive was needed by the industry. Thus, flash drives and solid state drives were born, and they have revolutionized what we know of as storage in the computing market.
When discussing solid state drives, SS D's many people, even experts, used the term flash and SSD interchangeably.
The two technologies air very closely related. However, the two terms don't refer to exactly the same thing. Let's use an analogy of the egg and omelets. Omelets are made of eggs, but eggs could be used to make a lot of different kinds of foods than just omelets, flashes what solid state drives use for their storage technology today, but that could change in the future.
But flash is used to make a lot more types of storage devices
thing just solid state drives.
Solid state drives using all flash have no moving parts, which makes them more reliable. Early flashed you RAM memory but now uses flash memory as the standard early flash drives had limitations and that, unlike spinning drives that could be written and erased indefinitely, Flash could only be written in erased so many times and then would have errors.
This is still the case, but the numbers of Reed right operations have grown 100 X
until the drive degrades. Solid state drives using flash are also incredibly fast. So deliver really amazing i ops and put out put operations per second. So early adoptions of SS D's were for organizations that wanted really fast I ops for operations. Like when a bunch of software thin claims
would need to boot up at 8 a.m. To start the business work day
within the organization. These virtual machines would be installed on SSD drives while the rest of the organization and the rest of the applications the organization would use would run on cheaper spinning disks. Today, due to Causton organization will still spread their limited budgets. Across flash and spinning drives,
however, is SST is continue to come down on cost.
We're beginning to see all flash doors, a raise and all flash. Hyper converged infrastructure platforms are become more common in the enterprise,
so I like this image of different raid types. But the individual who created this image got a little confused, I think, because Raid is an acronym, which means acronyms are written in all capitalized letters. In this case, the individual who created this image, I think, was trying to identify the different types of raid bug spray. That Pain said the picture does a nice job of showing
how using the data protection technique of writing data across multiple disks, or what's known to striping
can protect you in the event of hardware failure. Raid zero uses to destroy lives ensures the burden of writing your data across the two drives. Raid zero does not help you if you lose a drive, but it does help you with performance Raid one. Duplicate your data completely across two drives, so rights twice.
Raid five stripes across at least three drives and uses a technique
technology called parody or error checking in such a way that you can lose the drive. Raid one allows you to lose a drive, but you could don't gain any speed in operations. Raid five gives you the best of both worlds, where you gain speed and can lose a drive with the benefit of parody. Checking. Raid 10 Combined the technology of Raid zero and raid one,
and so they call it Raid
one plus Zero or raid 10 for short.
So this slide shows some of the different features and benefits of the various raid levels. You can see that Raid zero offers no data protection but high read and write performance metrics for critical, low, latent See real time applications. Raid one has high reed performance, but because it has to right twice right performance starts to suffer, and you will notice
that we start to see degraded performance of reed right operations. So because of that,
you have to start reducing how much of the capacity of storage platters you can use, because we will have things I block errors. So the drive has to skip that sector memory blocks and right to the next sector. Raid five is what you see the most common for General day to day storage operations. There is no theoretical limit to the number of drives you can use to build a raid. Group.
Raiders of Service, managed by a system in a computer known as a raid controller
raid controller, can be built in the motherboard or can be a separate peripheral card that is installed and used to manage your disk drives. Raid five requires a minimum of three drives to build the raid. Five. Group raid six requires at least four drives to build the raid. Six. Group became withstand, losing as many as 50% of the drives in the Raid Group.
And Raid 10 combines disc smearing and describing to protect data. Raid 10 requires a minimum of four discs and stripes data across mirrored pairs. As long as one disc and each mirrored Paris. Functional data can be received,
so according to our blue screen indicator, it's time for our memory check.
What are the reed right? Heads of a disk drive installed on and what are they attached to
What are three characteristics? Solid state drives?
What does the acronym raid mean
and what is the difference between Raid zero and raid one?
So check your read only memory chips. Wait for your Windows memory diagnostics test to run, ensuring that you have no bad memory sectors and then come back and we'll review our answers together.
So now that your memory is all checked and burned in the reed, right heads of a dis driver all attached to a single actuator arm assembly
three characteristics of solid state drives or SS D's are. They have no moving parts. They deliver very fast read right I ops and for now, use flash memory technology.
Raid, depending on who you ask, could mean a really effective bug spray to kill those pesky insects. Or it could mean redundant to rave independent discs and raid. Zero is striping, or data across two discs for faster read right performance, but offers no data protection will raid one
Wright's exact copies of your data across to drives, giving you the first level of data protection. You can lose a drive
and not lose your data.
So today's lecture We spent some time talking about the components of spinning disc things like actuator arms and platters. We learned about the 547,210 K and 15 k rpm's of those spindles spinning speeds, and we learned a little bit about some of that latest in dis Drive technology,
solid state drives that use flash memory.
And we shot down spider Web crawling crime crusader by reviewing the disc protection levels that raid provides. And so the next time we get together, we're gonna learn a bunch of three letter acronyms regarding storage architecture. Daz, Daz and Sand, which is all fancy ways of saying direct attached storage network, attached storage and storage area networks.
So, on behalf of all of us that the Cyber Security and I t Learning Team, we want to wish you and all of the users on your network very happy packets
and take care