Before we start with an map, I'd like to talk briefly about the ethics and legality of hosting network scanning.
I'm not a lawyer, so if you have any questions about legal stuff, please find a good one and consult with them.
But whatever you do, please make sure you understand the legal ramifications of scanning before you continue with this course.
In this lesson, I'll talk to you about the ethics of scanning, using and map.
Then we'll compare and contrast that with illegalities of scanning.
Next, they'll provide you with some reasons why you may want to seek legal advice.
Then I'll talk to you about the biggest piece of advice I can give. You. Obtain written authorization from the owner of any target you wish to scan prior to scanning it.
Next up. Preach to you about being good
and finally, I'll provide you with some really good references about the ethics and legalities of scanning within map.
So is scanning ethical,
In my opinion, it is in most cases,
but this certainly depends on who is performing the scan
where they're performing it and why,
and map was created to help network administrators and security professionals build and maintain great networks with secure hosts.
Unless you're running intrusive scans or scans that are intentionally designed to exploit some host Boulder vulnerabilities or deny service to its users. I believe scanning is ethical.
For example, let's say that I'm interested in finding all live hosts on my company's network as a part of my job is a network security admin
running a quick pink scan of my network. Using N map will provide me with a very fast inventory of every host that responds.
The load that it places on the network and its hosts is very low.
And in most cases, especially when you adjust the timing of the scan,
the scan won't even set off an I. D. S alarm.
There is simply no reason that a scam like this could be considered unethical.
What that said. Not all scans are created equal.
When is it unethical?
Well, I think the rule of thumb here is scanning is unethical. If your intentions are bad,
if you don't understand the ramifications of your skin,
or if your scan has the possibility of exploiting a vulnerability or denying service to its users,
However, you need to know that scanning with N map is still a somewhat controversial topic,
and what I think is ethical or unethical makes little difference to the legal community.
So let's talk about the legalities of network scanning a bit.
The next question we should answer is, is scanning with in map legal?
Well, for the most part, the answer is yes. In the United States, there are no federal laws that explicitly criminalize port scanning.
With that said, though, the use of N map as a scanning tool has caused both criminal and civil suits.
For example, in 1999 a guy named Scott Molten initiated a skin that was related to a public network he was setting up.
Ah, competing consultant company noticed the scan because they maintained a Web server on that network and pushed for both civil and criminal suits to be filed.
They were eventually dropped, but not without a prolonged fight, and a lot of money paid the lawyers.
The criminal suit cited the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of America Sections A five B,
which applies to anyone who intentionally access is a protected computer without authorization,
and as a result of such conduct causes damage is
as I see it, though the big problem was that the only damages that could be proven were the time and resource is spent by his competitors. In the investigation of the scan,
No exploitation attempt was launched and no service was denied to users.
Scott's win, in the end, was huge for ethical users of N map, and he's gone on to do bigger and better things.
But the point here is that in the US and many of its look cows,
people can use the legal system to harm ethical I t people to serve their own unethical purposes.
Scanning is always legal when you've obtained written authorization to perform the scan, and you've generated a statement of work that includes details of the types of scans you have initiated.
It's also always legal when you're performing it within your own home on computers and networks that you own.
It's also almost always legal when performing those scans is a part of your job responsibilities as laid out by your job description and does not go beyond your company's network perimeter.
You should always look Air Company's policies your job description and get written approval from your boss before initiating a scan at work.
If you're at school, similar rules apply.
So when is it illegal?
I would say that it could be considered illegal and could bring civil or criminal charges if any harm or damages could be proven.
It entirely depends on the parties involved and jurisdictions affected.
If you think it might be considered illegal, don't do it.
I wish I could be more specific than that. But the Internet is still a little like the Wild West and different law enforcement lawyers, Judges and Juries interpret our aging and inadequate laws in different ways,
and they simply can't be expected to understand. The technicalities of scanning always err on the side of caution. And perhaps my best advice is on the next slide. Seek legal advice
after all. Like I said, I'm not a lawyer.
If and or when you seek legal advice, make sure you find a lawyer that has experience with the prosecution or defense of civil or criminal suits related to network scanning
or, if this proves impossible, at least seek guidance from a lawyer that has prosecuted or defended any I T related suits.
And because different locales have different laws, make sure that the attorney works or has worked in the jurisdiction in which you intend to launch your scan or where the target resides.
As I mentioned before, there are no laws that explicitly criminalize scanning. But a good attorney can provide much better guidance on this than I ever could.
And remember, civil lawsuits could be brought against anyone at any time for any reason, and they're very rarely thrown out or considered frivolous, even with weak evidence.
This is especially true in I T related suits, because even modern judges tend to be old school
and lawsuits will almost always be very expensive to defend if one has brought against you.
Besides seeking sound legal advice from a competent attorney, my only other advice is to make sure you have really good insurance that will pay for the defence of such a suit should it unfairly be brought against you.
Okay, I mentioned this before, but I want to mention it again because it's so important,
obtained written authorization from those who own or operate any host that you intend to skin prior to launching the scan.
This is ethical and provides you with good legal protection.
If you're scanning hosts on networks that you maintain, make sure it's in your job description and get written authorization
If your scan goes beyond your network perimeter and even if you or your company owns the scanning station and the target, make sure you check your SP is acceptable use policy.
In some cases, your eyes be may shut off service if they detect network scans they deem to be a threat.
You should still check to make sure before you launch.
This may be overly simplistic, but my other piece of advice is simply to be good.
There are too many bad guys out there. Please be one of the good guys.
Have a legitimate reason for your scans and make sure that it doesn't involve doing harm.
Avoid noisy and or intrusive scans. I'll talk about these later, but they could include operating system discovery scans, advanced or aggressive scans, certain NSC scripts, scanning a huge network or too many ports, or setting the timing of the scan too aggressive or insane mode.
In other words, practice blight. Scanning.
This means that you should target your scans tightly.
Onley scan the hosts, from which
you want to gather information and limit the number of ports you're scanning if possible.
don't scan a slash 16 network if you're only interested. Interested in information from a slash 24
if you're only interested in Web and email service is just scan relevant ports like 25 1 10 and 80 for example,
use the timing of dash T two or less if possible.
I'll talk more about timing later, but basically the number next to the T indicates how aggressive the scans packets are crafted
and can be anything from 0 to 5.
The higher the number, the more aggressive it is
and finally don't depend on this. But in map has built in features that are intended to prevent crashing targets.
Practicing polite scanning will reduce the possibility that your scan will be noticed and will have minimal impact on the networks and host. Being scanned
on this slide and providing you with some additional resource is
if there is only one reference that I urge you to explore on this slide, it would be the 1st 1
The creator of N map presents a compelling case for every point I've tried to express in this lesson, and he goes into much more detail without being too wordy,
I think you'll find it very informative and well worth your time.
In this lesson, we discussed the ethics of scanning using and map.
Then we compared and contrasted that with the legalities of scanning.
Next, I provided you with some reasons why you may want to seek legal advice.
Then I talked to you about obtaining written authorization.
Next, I urge you to be good.
And finally, I provided you with some references about the ethics and legalities of scanning within map.
Thanks so much for going through this lesson with me and I'll talk to you in the next one.