September 14, 2015
September 14, 2015
(outline as of 9/13/2015)
Section 1-1 Topic:Introduction To Cryptography
Learning Objectives:This introduction video provides an outline of the curriculum covered in Cybrary's in-depth Cryptography course.
Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability and Authentication
How companies use cryptography
How penetration testers can also use cryptography
Tools, Techniques and Attacks
Academics discusses history of encryption.
Academics simply encrypt or hash, why aren't people using hashing more?
Professional is just, encrypt or not, hash or just verify
Section 1-2 Topic:Key Concepts of Cryptography:PKIS & Encryption
Learning Objectives:Cryptography is one of the most underrated courses of study in the industry. Of those who do study it, issues with comprehension tend to hinder individual mastery. By taking this course, learners will finally be able to grasp all the critical concepts, theories and practices associated with Cryptography.
This Cryptography presentation discusses and demonstrates the key concepts of Cryptography from attacks, PKIs and Encryption in detail.
You’ll learn about the difference between public and private keys and about the similarities and differences between symmetry & asymmetry. We’ll also discuss the concept of integrity and confidentiality and their relationships to/with protocols.
This Cybrary Cryptography course will help you master the basics of Cryptography as you begin to develop the discipline needed to become an accomplished pen tester.
Keys and Principles
1a. Symmetric - also referred to as same keys, private key, symmetric key - same (confidentially)
Different Version/Ways/Procedures to get PlainText to CipherText
Symmetric Cipher Examples:
AES, DES, 3DES, IDEA, CAST, twofish, Blowfish, RC2, Serpent, Rijndael - (there are others, chart at end of section)
PGP, OTP (One Time password)
Mnemonic device to remember some Symmetric Ciphers (how it reads, sounds and then corresponds, in English):
Hey! These 3 guys, had an idea to cast their rod to fish for blowfish, but instead received, serpents in the rain.
A! Dees 3 guys, had an IDEA to CAST their rod TWOFISH for BLOWFISH, but instead Received, Serpents in the Rain.
AES DES 3DES IDEA CAST TWOFISH BLOWFISH RC2 Serpent Rijndael
1b. Asymmetric - public/private key pair - what one key does, the other key undoes
(confidentially, authentication, nonrepudiation)
Asymmetric Cipher Examples:
DH (key exchange), El Gamal (open source), RSA (internet), Elliptical Curve (for limited processor machines),
Knapsack, DSA (popular as a US standard)
Mnemonic device to remember some Asymmetric Ciphers (how it reads and then corresponds, in English):
Diffie Hellman, El Gamal, RSA, Elliptical Curve, Knapsack, DSA
2. Principles (C, I, A)
Principles of CIA (confidentiality, integrity and authentication) along with PAIN will be discussed in detail later, focus on concepts and definitions.
Substitution/Transposition - PlainText to CipherText, and CipherText to PlainText
Disk Encryption (further detail later)
Detect unauthorized change via output of Message Digest, also known as, a hash.
MD5 (128bit), SHA (160 bit, also variable), Hashing Calculator
A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption.
CA, RA, X.509
IKE (internet Key exchange), ISAKMP, CRL (certification revocation list), OCSP (dynamic, checks x.509 cerrtification)
Chosen CipherText (needs physical access to machine)
Chosen Plaintext (choose what gets decrypted, needs physical access to)
SSH (replaced Telnet)
HTTPS (SSL/TLS with security protocol, wraps all upper layer application in cryptographic wrapper)
IPSec (Network Layer, analogy truck:authentication header/integrity check, payload:integrity check and confidentiality check)
Section 1-3 Topic:Introduction to Cryptographic Tools
Section 1-4 Topic:Services & Threats of Cryptography
Section 2-1 Topic:Integrity Checking:Modifications
Learning Objectives:These videos, while separate, build on each other and are all linked.
Explain how cryptography is used to protect CIA. ‘CIA’ can also be a ‘PAIN’ – all defined…
1. Confidentiality (C of CIA) (also Privacy, P of PAIN) - prevent unauthorized disclosure of data
a. Social Engineering:Opening Unsigned Emails (Spear Phishing, Whaling Attack)
Defense Controls:Physical, Technical, Mail Filter, Administrative Training
Ideas:Separation of Duties, Need to Know
b. Media Reuse:USB Thumb Drive reuse is common.
Sanitizing can also be referred to as Zero'ing
Destroying a hard drive, completely, requires incineration.
Degaussing method only works for Magnetic Media.
Deleting only removes pointer to file and Formatting can be recovered.
c. Eavesdropping:protocol (packet) analyzer/ sniffer. Wireshark is popular.
Replay Attack:Capturing a packet that contains a password and reusing;
This allows access to ‘use’ a password without never knowing the actual password
Zero Knowledge Proof:Kerberos allows end user to prove the password, without sending
password across network
Hack Attack Discussion:Directory Services:Query DNS, reply to send Credential to Server 1
2. Integrity (I of CIA, I of PAIN)
Accidental Modifications are checked by message digests, or hashes.
(digital representation of file - checks if identical)
Intentional (Malicious) Modification can be checked by using:
Message Authentication Code (MAC) or
Digital Signatures (both provide an extra step of authentication)
3. Authenticity (A of CIA, A of PAIN)
How to prove is truly came from the sender, is it valid?
4. Non repudiation (N of PAIN)
Combination of Integrity and Authenticity – must have both!
Sender can't dispute sending the message or contents - we use digital signatures for this
(further detailed explanations will follow on how)
Mnemonic Device, some remember it as CIA, or PAIN - P(rivacy) A(uthentication) I(ntegrity) N(on Repudiation)
Section 2-2 Topic:CipherText
Learning Objectives:Learn how to properly create CipherText and the processes behind it in this lecture series on Cryptography.
Plaintext + Initialization Vector + Algorithm + Key = CipherText
Plaintext is just plain, non-encrypted text or data.
Initialization Vector (IV) adds randomness and complexity. Randomized Starting Point
~Computer cannot generate a random number, so we have a pseudo random number.
~We could take any number of variable pieces of data to generate a pseudo random number such as:
A Date:12/12/1999 would be 34.
Algorithm (aka Cipher, is a collection of math functions)
~Symmetric Cryptography can also be referred to as:
Shared Key (i.e. shared between two parties)
~Any Symmetric Algorithm, to be discussed later, will be either:
Key (Crypto Variable) is the instruction on how to use the algorithm (how to use the math)
Section 2-3 Topic:Master Pattern Analysis with CrypTool
Learning Objectives:Learn how to perform pattern analysis with CryptTool to identify trends during the encryption process.
CrypTool is a non-academic analysis tool that offers a fundamental understanding of encryption algorithms.
Can be found at:https://www.cryptool.org
Section 2-4 Topic:Symmetric Encryption
Cryptographic Uses of Random Numbers
~There is very little true randomness (or entropy) so instead we use pseudo random.
Nonces - process of stamping uniqueness on packet without being sequential.
Note:Adds uniqueness and helps to stop replay attacks
Key Generation - keys must be unique, (pseudo) random and of a suitable length
Note:All things being equal, longer will offer more protection.
Symmetric Encryption (same key on both ends - real world example:a house key)
Confusion - Confusion relates to complex math and substitution
Diffusion - Diffusion relates to permutations or rounds
(DES went through 16 rounds, 3DES goes through 48 times/rounds/permutations)
Bit length is not necessarily the final determination of the strength of a key.
Open - Kerckhoffs Principles, algorithm should be open
Key Generation – (definition above)
[R1]+2, [R2]-2, [R3]*2, [R4]/2, ... [R6]^2 - each [R] would be considered an SBox (or substitution box)
Block Ciphers (slower, but more secure)
3DES (secure, very process intensive, but AES would be preferred)
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
Section 2-5 Topic:Stream Ciphers, XOR and RC4
We’ll go much deeper into what happens during XOR (which stands for exclusive Or), what transposition and substitution is, and whether or not multiple transposition and substitution is preferred. You’ll also observe a rich demonstration of how XOR provides encryption, learn what RC4 is and what takes place at the encryption and decryption level.
As a Penetration Tester, you must understand the key functions of each of these events, what their impact is on each other and how to determine when to use one over another in Symmetric Encryption.
One bit at a time
Transposition (THE becomes HET; moving over 1 character)
Substitution (A for T, B for H, C for E, assigning different characters, etc.),
XOR (Exclusive Or)
How XOR works, since it is a stream, it goes bit by bit
A real world example could be WEP/WPA which uses RC4
(fast encryption and decryption, trades security for speed)
WPA2 uses AES which is more secure.
Section 2-6 Topic:Pros and Cons of Symmetric Cryptography
You’ll discuss its greatest pro—speed. But as we know, sometimes being too fast occurs at a cost. Those costs will be discussed when we cover the cons of Symmetric Cryptography, such as Out of Band Key Distribution, lack of authenticity, issues with integrity, and non-repudiation.
Knowing what the boundaries are with your encryption resources will enable you to make accurate decisions and advise decision-makers with specific points of fact.
Out of band key distribution (no straight forward means of key exchange)
Not Scalable (every unique conversation requires a key)
No 'A'uthenticity (no court room authenticity, both parties share the key)
No 'I'ntegrity (corruption happens, it cannot detect corruption or packet drops)
No 'N'on Repudiation (requires both Authenticity and Integrity)
Does provide 'P'(rivacy/Confidentiality) of 'PAIN'
FAST, FAST, FAST! (It can be noticably real world faster)Section 2-7 Topic:Public Key Cryptography
Every user on the network is given a public and private key for encryption. This lesson discusses how the public and private key exchange happens, how Asymmetric Cryptography works, what has to happen so that public and private key exchanges can authenticate, and what the advantage/disadvantages are to employing Asymmetric Cryptography.
And finally, there is a contrast discussion on Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Cryptography discussion introducing how penetration testers can get the best out of both worlds.
Public Key Cryptography
Two keys issued to each user (simplified example)
~1 public key and 1 private key (a key pair)
Done automatically at the application layer with Outlook, Browser, etc.
Anything encrypted with one key (public) can only be decrypted with the other (private) and vice versa
Provides key exchange, scalability and non-repediation
Section 3-1 Topic:Asymmetric Cryptography Functions
A penetration tester must be able to understand what happens at each stage of encryption/decryption phase and how those transactions affect or trigger the outcomes of other events.
In this session, we learn how Asymmetric Cryptography delivers all four encryption services:privacy, authenticity, integrity, non-repudiation (PAIN). We’ll then we find out what happens at each state of asymmetric cryptography.
At the conclusion of this lesson, you’ll know what info is exchanged between public and private key, how packet verification occurs, how a hash is created and how hashing algorithms are used.
Asymetric Cryptography P.A.I.N.
Sender always encrypt with the receiver's PUBLIC key.
Receiver decrypts with receiver's PRIVATE key which only that receiver has.
Sender will encrypt \"something\" with the sender's PRIVATE key.
When the receiver is able to successfully decrypt that 'something' with that sender's PUBLIC key, that proves it was encrypted with the sender's PRIVATE key, which only the sender has.
Example:I am sending message; my content is encrypted with receiver’s public key.
The time stamp is encrypted with senders (my) private key - this can prove that *I* sent it.
Create a message digest (hash) with a hashing algorithm
(MD5:128 bit; used less, SHA-1:160 bit; used less, SHA 256:256 bit)
Asymmetric and Symmetric both use keys
Hashes do not use keys, they only use math functions
Example:Very rudimentary, but concept is important - hashes are one way functions
H E L L O (every characters numeric value, or the message, then added together)
8 5 12 12 15 = 52 (this value is the message digest/hash)
If you ONLY know the 52 (hash), trying to figure out the corresponding additive values would be arduous. Coupled with higher bit level encryption, the effort could take longer than we have time in the universe.
However, if they both match, the message has not been modified. Very easy one way math.
Sender encrypts hash with the sender’s private key. Receiver decrypts hash with sender’s public key. Receiver hashes document - if hashes match, receiver gets a guaranteed message has not been modified. This is called a digital signature.
*It is generally accepted that you cannot reverse a hash*
SSL - secure sockets layer – Asymmetrical (for all above), Symmetrical for data exchange (speed)
Section 3-2 Topic:Public Key Exchange
You’ll also learn about Certificates of Authority (CA), what comprises the certificate revocation list (CRL), what a online certification status protocol (OCSP) is, and why they are each essential to the encryption process. We’ll discuss the entire PKI (public key infrastructure) and what role each of its components has.
And finally, we’ll observe then explore what CA hashing looks like during encryption and decryption at the browser level, and learn why thorough PKI knowledge and training in Symmetric & Asymmetric Encryption for netadmins and cyber security professionals is essential.
[Desktop clients] -> uses https:// to reach -> [BofA servers]
1. Client requests via https to server
2. BofA sends public key* to client key
3. Client generates a symmetric session key (i.e. 8439...)
how does it get this session key to server?*
4. Client encrypts the session key with servers public key
(since server will be able to decode with private key)
Result:Enables Asymmetric Key Exchange/Symmetric Data Exchange - Secure Channel Setup
*This model still allows Man In The Middle (MITM) attacks, we must go further for assurance and authenticity.
To cure this, we must have the following public key being verified by a CA via public key infrastructure
BofA server proves to Verisign CA (certificate of authority) that they are truly BofA
(other CA’s would be Thawte, Baltimore, Entrust, etc.)
The CA then gives a certificate back to bind public/private key to server
*How do we know it came from Verisign, a trusted authority?
Verisign sends certificate with private key (can be decrypted with Verisigns public key).
*Your web browser may be pre-loaded with CA's - trust gained by having CA's public key.
Could set up our own CA, where we 'vouch' for ourselves. While that may not work for web based transactions, but for internal network transactions, it may be an acceptable trade-off.
CRL (pronounced krill) - Certificate Revocation List
OCSP - Online Certificate Status Protocol
Section 3-3 Topic:Advanced Encryption Package
You’ll observe creation of a password protected text file, see how the Advanced Encryption Package tool rates the strength of assigned password, and uses powerful algorithms to generate secure encryption for network files and directories.
In the Advanced Encryption Package lab, you’ll learn the advantages and disadvantages in the integrity principle vs. confidentiality principle and how those differences impact Symmetric vs. Asymmetric encryption. You’ll also see how to perform secure deletions, and learn how to use this tool as a key generator and PKI manager.
Advanced Encryption Package Lab
Can be found (Free Trial) at:http://www.aeppro.com/
Section 3-4 Topic:Hashing and Hash Collisions
You’ll also explore Hash collisions—what they are, how they happen, what it takes to recreate them, what happens when there is no integrity and how that is determined by the penetration tester.
Scenario 1:A MITM could just intercept and change the hash!
Without authenticity, hash is only useful for detecting accidental changes/corruption.
Scenario 2:Digital Signature adds authentication to the integrity, we get true non repudiation: protects against accidental or intentional changes...this all requires a PKI ($ overhead)
Scenario 3:Introduce a solution; use a
M(essage)A(uthentication)C(ode) = Message + Symmetric Key + Hashing Algorithm
(this would be a step below having/paying for the PKI overhead)
Passwords, credit cards, PII
Hash the drive before doing forensic analysis (write protect the drive).
Even opening a file could change the hash.
Malware analysis and virus detection
Two different pieces of text product the same hash. Collision resistant hashes are the goal.
If a collision is achieved, you now can produce the hash even though it was not the original.
Section 3-5 Topic:Hash Calc
The lab also discloses several integrity algorithms not output from the Hash Calc tool that provide a wider range of output datasets. Used in conjunction with the Hash My Files, and Advanced Encryption Package tool Hash Calc can be a very revealing “go-to” suite of resources for cryptographic analysis.
HashCalc is a fast and easy-to-use calculator that allows to compute message digests, checksums and HMACs for files, as well as for text and hex strings. It offers a choice of 13 of the most popular hash and checksum algorithms for calculations.
Can be found at:http://www.slavasoft.com/hashcalc/
Section 3-6 Topic:Digital Signature, SHA2(256) and RSA
Learning Objectives:In this sub-part of our previous Hash lesson, we take a closer, more intimate look at digital signatures, SHA2(256). We’ll look at Asymmetric Algorithm, RSA, what is met by satisfying the digital signature standard, and what the entire packet transfer looks like when hashing takes place.
We will also introduce concepts behind protecting data at rest.
Several key definitions are discussed included full disk encryption, file encryption, code signing with a discussion on how they differ, what occurs in each of those data transactions, and why that sequence of events is important for Penetration Testers to know as part of the Asymmetric encryption process.
Hash (remember, hashes are just one way math)
MD4, SHA-1, SHA-2
RSA - satisfied the Digital Signature Standard
Protecting Data At Rest
File Encryption - some files or properties may be readable if hard drive is moved to another computer OS (i.e. Windows Hard Drive using Encrypting File System is physically moved to a Linux Box)
Full Disk Encryption - modern motherboard have TPM (trusted platform module)
BitLocker, PGP, etc. achieve this.
Section 3-7 Topic:Hash My Files
You’ll also observe a demonstration of how the Hash My Files tool works and what you can learn from the information it provides.
Because of their strong algorithms, security professionals rely heavily on hashing as a reliable Cryptographic analysis tool for integrity validation.
Hash My Files tool analyzes files by specific file or by directory and validates their integrity.
HashMyFiles is small utility that allows you to calculate the MD5 and SHA1 hashes of one or more files in your system. You can easily copy the MD5/SHA1 hashes list into the clipboard, or save them into text/html/xml file.
HashMyFiles can also be launched from the context menu of Windows Explorer, and display the MD5/SHA1 hashes of the selected file or folder.
Can be found at:http://www.nirsoft.net/
CrypTool - http://www.cryptool.org
Advanced Encryption Package - http://www.aeppro.com
HashCalc - http://www.slavasoft.com/hashcalc/
HashMyFiles - http://www.nirsoft.net/
(links cannot be guaranteed, as they are maintained independently)
END OF OUTLINE