Physical security pertains to facility construction and location, facility security including physical access control and technical controls, security maintenance. Its intended function is to safeguard against physical threats such as fire and smoke; water; earthquakes, landslides, and volcanoes; storms; sabotage and vandalism; explosion and other forms of destruction; building collapse; toxic materials; power outages; equipment failure; and personnel loss. In the majority of cases, a disaster recovery plan or a business continuity plan will be required in the event that a severe physical threat occurs. The security controls that can be applied to manage physical security can be administrative controls, technical controls, and physical controls.
- Administrative physical security controls include facility construction and selection, site management, personnel controls, awareness training, and emergency response and procedures.
- Technical physical security controls include access controls; intrusion detection; alarms; closed circuit television (CCTV); monitoring; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC); power supplies; and fire detection and suppression.
- Physical controls for physical security include fencing, lighting, locks, construction materials, mantraps, security guards and guard dogs.