Module 3: Network Structure and ConfigurationUnit Overview
Network TopologiesNetwork TypesNetwork OptimizationNetwork Ports and ProtocolsRouting and Switching Network Topologies
Bus TopologyRing TopologyMesh TopologyStar TopologyTree Topology Multiple LANs make a WAN Bus Topology
- Connected in line – any break in line, the network goes down.
- Must be terminated on ends.
- Connected in a circular pattern, any break in line, the network goes down.
- Every computer connected to every computer
- Redundancy, no one computer takes the computer down.
- Negative is each computer requires as many NICs as computers.
- Every computer connects to a central node
- No one computer takes the computer down.
- If hub goes down, all network connectivity stops.
- Hierarchical structure
- Central node for each hub, star connected to a star connected to a star.
IntranetInternetExtranet (Perimeter Network, DMZ) Intranet
- Private network
- Created by a company to host internal resources
- Isolated network
- Protected by firewalls or proxies
- Global networks of interconnected network devices
- Not controlled by any organization
- Networks relying on protocols to send information
- Commercial and private organization by an IP
Extranet (Perimeter network, DMZ)
- Extension of an intranet
- Allows the organization that created the extranet to share resources outside the intranet
- Owned by the organization that created it
Load BalanceBandwidthLatencyCompressionCaching Load Balancing
- Distribute requests across devices
- Used to lighten the load
- Bandwidth is the speed of the network
- 10 MB/sec10 MB is the bandwidth
- 100 MB/sec100 MB is the bandwidth
- Is the time delay while data is being sent (in ms = milliseconds)
- The higher the latency, the slower the network
- Shrinking a file
- ZIP and RAR are common file extension types
Network Ports and Protocols
- Allows for a storage of frequently accessed data
- Servers typically have a cache that allows a temp storage of internet files for quick recall
Common PortsFTP 20/21 TCP File Transfer ProtocolTelnet 23 TCPSSH 22 TCP Secure ShellSMTP 25 TCP Simple Mail Transfer ProtocolDNS 53 TCP UDP Domain Name ServerDHCP 67/68 UDP Dynamic Host Control ProtocolTFTP 69 UDP Trivial File Transfer ProtocolHTTP 80 TCP Hyper Text Transfer ProtocolPOP 110 TCP Post Office ProtocolNNTP 119 TCP Network News Transfer ProtocolNTP 123 UDP Network Time ProtocolIMAP4 143 TCP UDP Internet Message Access ProtocolSNMP 161/162 TCP UDP Simple Network Management ProtocolLDAP 389 TCP UDP Lightweight Directory Access ProtocolHTTPS 443 TCP UDP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol SecureRDP 3389 TCP UDP Remote Desktop Protocol Routing and Switching
Network Address Translation (NAT)Port Address Translation (PAT)Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)Routing Tables Network Address Translation (NAT)
- Allows a network to share one IP in the internet
Port Address Translation (PAT)
- Provides many internal devices mapping of a single IP address
Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)
- Virtual LANs to create a logical separation on a physical network
- VLANs are usually created in a switch
- Tables that are stored on the router
- Used to route network packets
- Contains information about the internal network and the next hop
Described Network TopologiesDescribed Network TypesDescribed Network OptimizationDescribed Network Ports and ProtocolsDescribed Routing and Switching