Time
31 hours 29 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
30

Video Description

Unicast, Multicast and Broadcast This lesson covers the following three terms: - Unicast: a single computer (or node) talking to another single computer (or node). - Multicast: One computer (or node) talking to many computers (or nodes). - Broadcast: One computer (or node) to anyone of anything in the broadcast domain, can be reached just by talking to the MAC address. These terms are used to talk about how a device communicates with other devices on a network.

Video Transcription

00:04
Now let's take a look at the difference between three terms that you may hear thrown around called Una cast multicast and broadcast. Now we're gonna break each of these three different terms down by dividing them between I pee before and I p v six because it's a little bit different. We're referring to them now.
00:20
You know, cast multicast and broadcast or also any cast for I. P V six
00:25
refers to the ways that our individual computer, our individual device, is going to try to talk to other device or devices out on the network. So we need to understand how these work and understand what they're referring to.
00:39
Now, when we're referring to a unique cast were referring to when we're talking about Ivy before we're talking about a 1 to 1 relationship. So es una cast will be a single computer or a single node
00:54
talking to another single computer or single note. So you cast weren't seeming a packet to a unit cast or ascending to a unique cast address. You know, cast addresses, an address that specifies one single computer or one single note
01:11
in I P V six. This includes our addresses which we, which are known as link local site, local unique local and global unit cast. All of these are you new cast addresses that specify one single interface on a network or around the world, especially when it comes to our global unit cast.
01:30
Our global unit cast her first to one address one i p v six address
01:36
on the entire on the entire Earth in the entire world. So that's going to be our unit cast where it's a 1 to 1 relationship.
01:42
Next we have our multi cast now are multi cast is going to be one too many. In the case of an I P V four address, we have multi cast addresses where we'll be sending toe a specific multicast address that different nodes or computers are members off. And when we send to this multi cast address,
02:02
it actually sends to those multiple notes.
02:06
This may be useful when we're trying to send or load balance on a server, and we're trying to see who will respond to us first or just trying to send to a group of computers that are part of this multi cast group. So with I P before a multicast address will be one too many. The same with I p v six. It's one too many.
02:24
Now I p d six does not have broadcast. It does not have one to everybody. It doesn't have that broadcast mentality, but it does have multi cast groups, which are sort of used to which are used in place of using broadcast
02:42
in common. I P v six will replace his broadcast
02:46
with a combination of multi cast and any caste addresses any caste, which we'll talk about in just a second. So with remember, you know, cast is uni, which is 11 toe. One like uni cycle with one wheel and multi cast is multi, so we have
03:05
many one too many,
03:07
and then we have broadcast in any caste. Now broadcast is I P. V four
03:14
and any caste is I. P V six.
03:19
Broadcast is going to be one to anybody who will listen and is in my own my same broadcast domain. So what's a broadcast domain? We'll broadcast domain is essentially any computer that you can you could hypothetically reach by just talking with their Mac address. So you
03:38
are reaching these computers that are
03:40
inside of your router or inside of your network. Now, these broadcasts addresses. If we had a network diagram here, where if we have, we'll give ourselves a standard switch. We're going to start using these
03:57
icons. Maur, for example. This this box has two arrows going in opposite directions for a switch.
04:03
So
04:06
we have our switch with our different computers on it, connected to another switch
04:13
with other computers on it, and then our second switch is connected to a router. If on the outside of this router say, there's another switch with more computers and our computer right here
04:26
sends out a broadcast message with I P V four, our broadcast message only propagates on this side of our router. Our broadcast domain is this
04:36
segment right here that's connected by our switches here. So when we sent out a broadcast will only be hitting
04:46
these computers here as well as our router.
04:49
It's also important
04:51
So
04:54
these computers here and our Browder and our router here computers, switches, router, But our router will not propagate our broadcast message.
05:03
Just imagine the imagine the horror that would occur on the Internet if routers did brought if routers did broadcast or propagate broadcast messages. A single computer anywhere connected to the Internet could send out a broadcast message and would propagate all over the world. If every single router
05:23
potentially
05:25
propagated out these broadcasts messages and there was no rules or anything to stop them, every single router would just continually continually broadcast messages all over the world. So we need to We needed to have a location somewhere where we said, Hey, this device is not gonna propagate broadcast messages. Not gonna rot broadcast messages.
05:43
And so that is at our router.
05:45
So our broadcast is going to send a message to everyone in our broadcast domain or everyone on our network. Inside our router, a router will not broadcast.
05:56
We're not route broadcast messages.
05:58
Next we have I p d. Six. Any caste now, any caste is a bit different than broadcast because any caste is going to be one, too,
06:08
the nearest nearest anybody. So our I p v six and then to our switch
06:16
and then to another switch with a computer over here
06:20
and then a computer over here off our first switch send out in any caste packet and our closest computer
06:28
to respond would be our computer on our first switch here. So are any caste is going to be one to nearest. So I p v six, rather than having broadcast built in, is going to use a combination. We're gonna use a combination of multi cast in any caste to essentially achieve
06:46
what we needed Broadcast foreign I p before.
06:49
So that's our difference between our multi cast. You know, cast and broadcast are also or any caste. And remember our prefixes Help us a lot, you know, cast uni one toe, one multicast, multi
07:03
one to multiple, many
07:06
broadcast. We're sending thio
07:09
broad amount of people. We're gonna send his many people as we can in our broadcast domain and then any cast one to whoever's closest with broadcast in any caste. However, remember that broadcast is I pee before only in any cast. His i p v six on lee.
07:24
So thank you for joining us here today on cyber dot i t We talked about a lot of different topics here in 1.3 we talked about I pee before i p v six how i p v four an i p v six are made up of different bits and how they all work together to form the 32 bit address scheme and I. P v. Four
07:43
or the 128 that address scheme that we have an I. P. D. Six.
07:46
We talked about everything from submitting to Mac addresses, too.
07:51
How to do sub netting by take breaking off into our little bits and private and public addressing and are different addressing classes. So it was a very hefty module on. There's a lot of information to go over and review in it into study and get very good at it. But when in the world of networking and in the world of net plus,
08:11
um, I pee before an I. P V six and our Mac addresses and all of the different properties of I P addressing
08:18
are very, very important because it's how we talk in today's day and age of the Internet. I P v. Fours is king. So this is very it's a very important module. It's very important to go in and depth and to understand it very well.
08:33
And hopefully it was very informative for you and hopefully we'll see you here next time on cyber Dottie

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