Hi. My name is Anthony, and I'm here today with cyber dot i t. I'm your local subject matter expert here for a plus, and today we're going to talk about
the concepts and configurations for T c p i p. When we think about computers,
a lot of the times we just think about our single computer were able to add computer gains onto it were ableto edit documents with Microsoft Word. But we also go on the Internet. We also transfer files and we move files from servers to our computer. And in order for our computers to be able to do that,
they have to be able to talk.
Now, computers obviously can't talk like we do. They can't communicate verbally,
so they actually have to communicate with another means they have to communicate with electronic signals.
Now, in order for computers to understand each other's electronic signals, they have to
have a set of rules. They have to have some guidelines so that they know. Okay, this is what this set of electronic signals means. And when I'm talking to you, this is where I send these set of electronic signals. And this is how I know who you are and you know who I am and how we communicate back and forth.
So the first thing we're gonna talk about when we're talking about T c p i p
is T C P I. P stands for transmission control protocol slash Internet protocol. We're talking about the way that our computers talk to each other over the Internet, sort of our basis for the rules and regulations of communicating over the Internet.
Now some of you may have heard of I p addresses. Sometimes you'll have to release and renew an I P address in order to get your connection back up and running. Or he may have problems with your I p address or you need. You basically need an I P address to talk. And then TCP is just our transmission control protocol for Internet protocol.
We just mentioned our I P address.
Well, let's talk a little bit more about computer addresses before we can actually really discuss how computers talk back and forth. We need to know how they point to each other how they locate another computer and know that this computer is
belongs to this person. This computer is located here. So let's take a little bit of a deeper look at computer addresses and see if we can figure out how this work. One of the very first addresses that we need to talk about when we're talking about computers communicating back and forth is our Mac address. Max stands for media access control.
A lot of times you'll hear people referring to
Ah, Computers Mac address as a physical address, and there's a pretty good reason for this. Well, when we take a look at our computer here, what's this computer's physical address? How do we know that
when we're connecting to it, is this computer? How do we determine that if it doesn't really have
undress that's built into it? Well, we do have an address built into it.
The Mac address The physical address
is built into the Computers network interface card. Now
you have network interface cards or nick cards for short that are built into the motherboard, as well as ones that you can add on through expansion slots. Now all of these different network interface cards, whether it's one that's built into the motherboard or
another one that you add on as an expansion card. They all have separate physical addresses,
every single one. So even if you add multiple cards into your computer, those different network interface cards are going to have different physical addresses so that they can be identified on your network and they can be.
They make it a little bit easier. Well, a lot easier for computers to talk back and forth because they know that
I'm going to send this information to this physical address.
Now Mac addresses are completely unique.
We make an effort. Computer manufacturers make an effort to ensure that they aren't duplicated anywhere around the world because we don't want to run into a situation where we have two computers on a network with the same Mac address. That can cause a lot of problems.
Now there are programs, and there are applications that allow Mac address spoofing for security research purposes. But
in our instances, in a normal environment, we don't want tohave duplicated Mac addresses because that can result in confusion on our network.
So Mac addresses air completely unique and their unique to our computers. Ah,
our computer's hardware, the network interface cards, hardware. When the network interface card is designed and when it's manufactured, it's a sign that physical Mac address and that physical Mac address sticks with that card. This is a what's known as a hex, a decimal number when we're looking at it, it's 12 digits and six pairs with
dashes in between them. So say six pairs, but it's a hexi decimal, and it will use zero through F.
Now that may sound a little bit weird, but,
um, zero through F actually has to do with the way that the binary is set up in our Mac address, the way that
all the binary works together in order to display what the Mac addresses. So we'll have zero through nine being used in our addresses as well as a through F. If you see
on any test prep questions or any when you're actually taking a test and asks you about a Mac address, if you see a Mac address that has a letter that is
after F, you have ah, G Orrin H. Then that's not a valid Mac address. Because Mac addresses could only have zero through nine and then a through F.
It's going to be six pairs of two. Now, when I say six pairs, let's go ahead and just draw an example. Right? An example. Mac Address up here. So we have 123456 pairs and 12 individuals.
Now these Mac addresses
again. Zero through af,
separated by the dashes. And then sometimes you may see them in
or instead they're actually separated by colon. We also want to make sure that we put down here physical. This is going to be sort of what we consider our Lowell. Lowest level addressing for individual computer. When you think of what's my computers, when I'm plugging this Internet or this network cable
what is that Computer's address? What is its house say, quote unquote house address that it's telling everybody that ISS
it's that's going to be the Mac address. We're gonna talk about some higher level addressing that gets assigned to your computer later, such as I p addresses I P v four addresses. I P v six addresses host names, but all of those are things that can very easily be changed and are very often changed, especially
I P addresses and host names, depending on the situation.
But the Mac, the physical address of the computer is something that we don't want changed. We wanna avoid that at all costs. We don't wanna have to swap out network interface cards or be using software to try to change that Mac address. We want it to stay the same so that when we're communicating back and forth with the computer, we can identify it with its Mac address.