TCP/IP

MicroCourse
Time
1 hour 51 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
3

Video Description

TCP/IP Configuration (part 2) As we continue examining the TCP/IP, we look more specifically at the role IP addressing plays for internet communications. You'll learn what an IPv4 address is, how it's distinguished from IPv6 and what the advantages are of this enhancement. We'll diagram the IP address numbering convention and help you to understand the functions or points of each segment, and how those numbers are translated into transmittable signals. You'll come to understand the balance of on/off relative to the binary language of 1's and zero's and how they are functionally calculated. When this lesson is completed, you'll know the difference what a byte is, what an octet is, and how to correctly identify the value of 00000010 relative to how bits and bytes work!

Video Transcription

00:04
We just finished talking about our Mac. Address our computers physical address, but that's really not be addressed. That will be using is often when we're communicating over a network or communicating over the Internet
00:15
more often will be using something called an I P address. Now you recognize I p from our TCP slash I P protocol and our I P address. Our Internet Protocol address is what we're more commonly using.
00:29
Now. Our common dress that we're using is going to be an i. P V four address. We are in the process of developing and implementing I P V six addresses. However,
00:42
there's still some changes that are going on there. There's still some regulations that will be written being written about I P V six addresses, and we'll get into some reasons later as why we're eventually going to have that make that transition. But as of now I p v four addresses or what you'll see more common
00:58
I pee before addresses are a group of four numbers ranging from 0 to 255. So we'll have something like 1 92.1 68.1 dot one
01:12
and as you can see
01:15
they're separated by periods. This set of numbers are actually made up of binary numbers. At its core level, our computer can really only understand
01:25
two things it can either understand on or off an electrical signal that's
01:30
and on electrical signal or an off electrical signal. It really doesn't get that much more.
01:37
Not that much more fancy than that. Everything else that's built on top of our computer. All of our operating systems are bios. The way our processor works and processes information is all built on those ones and zeros that stands for our
01:51
on Zan dos, and
01:53
we really are just expounding upon that. The more and more we get into technology, it's just an expansion of that,
02:00
just like our I P address. Our I P address is really just an expansion of ones and zeros. So
02:07
when we're talking about our ones and zeros, we're talking about a language called Binary.
02:10
This is actually, as we said, this is a group of four buyin ery octet. It's so
02:19
each of these
02:20
four sections are actually a group of
02:23
eight ones or zeroes.
02:27
I'll take a little bit of look here
02:30
behind the curtain
02:30
and we'll see that when we're talking about a single binary digit. We're talking about a bit a bit. Is either a one or a zero
02:42
and on worn off.
02:44
When we take more of those bits and we put eight of them together, that's what we call a bite. And that is going to be eight ones or zeroes or whatever combination thereof.
02:53
So we have a bite,
02:57
and now we go a little bit further. An octet
03:00
is just another name for our bites. So if we if we refer to something as a binary octet or just referred to it as an octet,
03:09
what's also talking about a bite that's also an octet bite an octet. Whichever one these octet CE are used to create these numbers here, how did they do that? Well, we mentioned earlier that
03:23
our bits are either on or off a one or a zero,
03:25
and when we have them in the formation of a bite
03:30
now we're gonna get into a little bit more complicated realm. Here
03:34
we're going by powers of two, for example, that has a value of
03:39
zero, obviously
03:42
eight zeros. We have a value of zero.
03:44
If we throw one at the end here,
03:49
that's our value of one.
03:51
Now, when we move up a step
03:54
and we go to 10
03:59
that's actually not 10. That's going to be, too.
04:02
The reason. Being again, Computers can't
04:08
process at their very basic level. They can't process
04:12
the number two they don't really understand. They can't really
04:15
send electrical signals that are saying in one electrical jump, this is a two.
04:21
That's not the way it works. They only they only correspond in either on or off. So when that sins,
04:30
several bits of data
04:31
remember that can either be on or off. We still have to communicate the number two somehow.
04:36
So we move over
04:39
to our second bit, our next power of two. So now that we're in this second place here,
04:46
that that means to
04:47
plus zero. So we have to there.
04:50
If we add an additional one there,
04:54
so it's 11
04:56
that would be three. We add the last two bits
05:00
says we can see here.
05:02
This first bit is going to be our one's place.
05:06
Our values of one
05:09
twos.
05:12
Fours
05:15
eight,
05:16
16
05:20
32
05:23
64
05:26
and 1 28 Think of it almost like an abacus. An abacus with Onley, one bead Paro. Each row means a different value, and you add up all of those rose. You add up all of the roads that you have an on bead
05:41
in order to get your total value.
05:43
So if we add up,
05:45
if we have a on switch in our two and an on switch in our one,
05:48
we had those together and make three.
05:50
If we move this over,
05:54
and if we have an on switch
05:57
in our 16
06:02
and an on switch
06:04
in our fours place
06:08
and then a zero in our two's place and an on switch in our one place, then 16 plus four plus one is 21
06:17
So that's how we get our values here.
06:19
This was just a really quick explanation of how our bits and bytes work, but
06:25
it's need in order to understand how we get this number.
06:28
This number just
06:30
isn't composed of just those numbers. It's individually composed of these bits and bytes that
06:35
when we're looking at, are just our number. It's all calculated together already for us. All of these OC tests are already all added together and then just displayed as an easier number for us to understand an easier number for us to see and quicker so we don't have to calculate every time we look at it. So back to our i p before address.
06:54
Now that we know how this number numbers
06:56
created, that each of these
07:00
are actually
07:00
octet, it's each of these four places air, actually
07:03
eight ones or zeroes, all added together, we can actually use our multiplication and
07:11
multiply out all of our octet ce together and
07:15
the number of possible addresses for us in our entire range of I p addresses. All the possibilities we have is equal to 4.3 billion addresses. That's a lot of addresses
07:29
at face value. When we start thinking about it more, we think about the fact that
07:36
ah lot of devices have addresses, especially now when we have so many different devices that connect or Internet.
07:43
We have our individual home computers. We have
07:46
hundreds of office computers in our office. Governments have thousands of computers, businesses,
07:54
Amazon, Google, all of our web, hosting all of our phones, all of these devices, in order to communicate with the Internet.
08:01
They all need I p addresses, and we can see when
08:05
practically every person now has a phone orm or more. People are getting phones every single day that connect to the Internet, and more and more people are getting new computers and more storage space and more data centers.
08:22
This number is dwindling really fast
08:24
now. There are methods that we used to make sure that not every single computer needs its own reserved public i p address. But this number's still going away pretty quick. That's why we have I p v six, which we'll talk about later. But it gives us quite a few Maura dresses as you'll see.
08:41
But
08:43
nonetheless, we're still using I p. V four because we still have the ability to. And it's still a pretty simple method to use just these four objects here. These are different from our Mac address because they allow us to route information better.
08:58
We don't use our Mac address over TCP I Pee wee. Don't you really use our Mac address to communicate with Web servers?
09:05
We use I P addresses and these I p addresses our route are a lot of our I P addresses are row double, and they allow us to communicate over the network.
09:13
Now, these I P addresses are actually composed of two parts. Are first part is our network i D. And our second part is our host I d that would each of these mean our network I d is the part of I p r i p address which says where we are on what what network are we on
09:33
in our host? I d
09:33
actually points to our particular computer on the network.
09:39
No.
09:39
So, on this particular I p address, we could say that
09:43
our network I d
09:46
is 1 92.1 68 Got one,
09:50
and our host I d
09:52
is 0.1. So
09:56
when we're looking at all the other computers that are on this same network is us all the other computers in our home or all the other computers in our office that are on this same 1 92.1 68.1 network.
10:09
None of them are going to have the same last digit as us. This would cause a conflict again like our Mac addresses. We don't want the same
10:16
physical addresses someone else's on our on our network. We don't want the same exact same i p address as someone else on our network because this can cause confusion with traffic.
10:26
So we have our host segment, our network segment
10:30
and our host segment network I d and our host I d. How many of these points indicate Which part is our host Saidi, in which part of our network I d. Depends on our I p address classes and how their sub netted. We'll talk about that in a little bit, but
10:46
all we really need to know just as our first basic introduction toe i v p v i p v four is that it is
10:54
four segments four octet ce
10:58
separated by periods.
11:01
We have 4.3 billion possible addresses
11:05
and each i p address has a network i d
11:09
and a host city. And with that basic information, we can get an idea of how our computers have that additional I p address and we can use that we can use that address to communicate with other computers across the network

Up Next

TCP/IP

The communication standard that devices use to exchange data across the internet

Instructed By

Instructor Profile Image
Anthony Harris
Systems Analyst and Administrator at SAIC
Instructor