So we have hubs and we have switches. And next we have multilayer switches before, before we hit multilayer switches, though we want to mention that we have just like our hubs have. Icons are switches. Also have icons now are switches.
You'll usually see their icon being four arrows
going in alternating directions.
So that will be our switch icon on our network diagrams. What's the difference between our multi layer switch in our standard switch? Well, our multi layer switched can perform layer three as well as layer two operations. Now, if we remember Roos I model, please do not throw sausage pizza away.
Our layer to our due
part of that is going to be data link layer. Layer three is going to be our networking layer. It's going to be our i p addressing layer
so multilayer switch, it can perform routing and switching if necessary. We can perform routing functions on this multi layer switch so
our multilayer switches gonna perform all the standard operations of our standard
smarts are standard switch will, but our standard switch will only work at lake is only working at layer to our multi layer switch is going to be able to work it later to an layer three. It's also going to be able to perform some routing if necessary, work in route data,
and we may be even able to set up some V lands, and we may be able to set up
some additional connective it ian additional settings on our multilayer switch that we can't on our standard switch. So
our multi layer if you hear a multilayer switch or sometimes you may hear someone referring to a layer three switch or layer two in Layer three switch. They're referring to this multi layer switch. And when they referring to this multi layer switch, they're referring to a switch that can perform additional functions other than just sending data
two devices on the same network
but may also be able to actually send data and recognize and look in. Look at the I P addresses of packets and look at the I P header information of packets and route that data if necessary.
Lastly, over here we have our bridges and our bridges air going to connect network segments. Now what do we mean by that?
Well, let's imagine we have a big network.
See if we can make us some more space here. If we have a large network,
we may not want all of our devices to be connected to a single switch.
All of our devices may not be able to be connected to a single switch because of the size of, say, our building. If we may have multiple floors and we may not want to have cables going from the first floor all the way up to the fifth floor, we'll need different devices. Are cables going from the first floor to the fifth floor may not be able even able. Thio,
go that link. They may not be able to send a signal across that length without an additional device on them, so our bridges allow us to connect these different network segments. So we have computers here on the first floor, computers on our second floor and computers on the third floor.
And all of these computers need to be on the same network well, rather than connecting them simply to switches. We can connect them to our bridges, and our bridges can connect these different network segments, and they can help break up, and they can help segment traffic.
So we have our bridge here of our bridge here. Your bridge here. Where? Bridges connecting. We have some bridges that are able to actually break up in segment this traffic, much like our switches are able to manage. Okay, I have this device on this port, and I have this device on this port. Our bridges may say, OK,
my switch, or I need to send this onto a different switch.
So if we have computer A, B,
Computer A and B are on the third floor are connected to the third floor bridge.
So if computer A is trying to send a packet to computer be, then it doesn't need to have that packet propagated through all of the other bridges. So it'll soon that packet and then
bridge bridge number three. Our bridge on the third floor
will recognize. Okay. Yeah, this is this is a packet that goes to someone on my on my connection on my connection to the network. So I'm not gonna pass along,
but then computer A needs to talk to computer F
computer F is on bridge one So Bridge three is going to say up. I don't have that computer on my bridge. So I'm gonna pass this alone
computer to says I don't have this on my bridge computer once is Oh, that's me.
And passes along to computer F and then talks back up
So our bridges allow us to connect those different network segments, and they also allows to break up and segment segment traffic. Our bridges aren't going to be performing routing. They're not going to be performing at layer three. They're gonna be performing it layer to just data link layer. Our bridges allow us to connect different in points there,
rounding network traffic. They're routing data,
inspecting those I p addresses, inspecting packets, but they are able to manage by Mac addresses so they will be performing it that layer to they'll be performing at a data link layer.
Now, bridges aren't just limited to wired bridges. We can also have wireless bridges. So say we have We have our floors 12 and three, but there's no feasible way for us to physically connect floors 12 and three.
For some reason, there's
floorboards or there's titanium ceilings or plenty of spaces in between floors 12 and three. And we cannot connect a physical connection between these different bridges,
the bad thing is, we still need to get to the Internet
and the Internet comes in and our first floor
connects here to this bridge.
So how are we supposed to get out?
Well, our house, How did people on floor 32 and three and two supposed to get out? Because we can't have that physical connection?
Well, we could have our router be a wireless router. We could have ah, wireless router connect out wirelessly to all these different computers. But let's say for some reason we don't want to do that. We want to secure down our router. We don't want people to be able to directly connect to our router using a wireless connection. So we decide to
create a wireless bridge.
Now our wireless bridge.
We'll be right here on our connection connected to our router,
and our wireless bridge will wirelessly connect to
our bridges on the second, and then maybe we have ah, repeater that will connect to our third floor
our computers will physically connect over to the bridges.
So again, remember, back toward didn't definition.
Our bridge is a device that connects network segments.
So this entire diagram here
is our same network. This entire diagram used the same class I P addresses the same network I d. I p addresses.
But because we can't physically connect them, we use wireless bridges to connect.
And this is a wireless connection here. 122 and 2 to 3. And then the network segments on the different bridges are physically connected to their corresponding bridges.
So that's the difference between our hubs are switches are multilayer switches and our bridges,
and then lastly, are repeaters
are repeaters or devices which increase a signal.
So when we have a length of cable, we can on Lee have a maximum length that we can send a signal down that cable before it starts to lose power before the signal starts to degrade. This is because of Elektra, mainly because of electromagnetic interference Is what we need
is why we need different repeaters. Now this electromagnet will this electromagnetic interference in combinations with in combination with just standard standard standard signals becoming too weak to get to their end point
eso when we have a computer that sending an electrical signal over a cable to get to the other end,
even in a vacuum with no electromagnetic interference from the outside, it all that electrical signal is still energy that can only travel so far on a cable. It can't go indefinitely, so we need to have devices that can increase the signal, Whether
it's whether it's by amplifying the signal or signal regeneration,
are typically no longer stand alone devices. When we're talking about sending signals across power lines or since sending signals miles and miles, then yes, repeaters. Maybe standard may actually be still stand alone devices, but in our homes and in our in our offices
are repeaters are typically built in to our other devices. We may have a switch, which also acts as a repeater because it has built in capabilities to strengthen that signal. Or we may have a bridge or a multilayer switch or a router, which also acts as a repeater. But repeaters are still devices which can be staying alone devices.
Now we're Peters can amplify, or they can perform signal regeneration
when we're amplifying a signal. We are giving it more power only. So we're only giving. We're taking a signal that's coming in.
And so we have our magical signal signal repeater box.
So we're taking a signal that's coming in,
and it's getting kind of weak, and we're just taking that exact same signal and we're copying it and we're blasting it out
With more electrical power
our signal. Regeneration
actually cleans up that signal.
So we have a signal that's coming in and is not only weak, but it's had some electromagnetic interference with it. The signal isn't quite right. There may be some deformities in it and could result in corrupted data being transferred if it were to go on without this repeater.
So this repeater is going to take our week
Ah, weak signal that has some disruption in it that has some interference in it.
And it's not only going to amplify it, but it's gonna clean it up.
So that's our difference between our amplify and our signal. Regeneration, with our repeaters amplifies power on Lee, and signal regeneration is clean up
So this is a recap before we move on to our routers.
Our routing and switching
allow us to connect devices over networks. They allow us to connect devices on our network or over other networks. Multiple networks.
Switching is on our same network. Routing is taking data and traversing different networks.
Our major devices are going to be our hubs, which are devices which received data and send to all connected devices except the one that send it to it.
Our switches, which are like smart hubs, remember, hubs are dumb switches. They're smart,
Smart hubs are switches which actually contract Mac addresses to ports and send on Lee to the intended party
are repeaters, which takes signals and amplify them. Power only origin. Signal regeneration. Clean them up.
We have multi layer switches, which are switches which can also perform rounding, which can perform it later to or layer three or both.
And then we have bridges which actually connected multiple network segments. So we have all of our standard devices here and now we're gonna move on to our routers are routers are gonna be It's a much bulkier segment which includes ah lot of different concepts to understand. So keep these in mind as we move on