So we have two different kinds of patch panels. We have the 66 block,
which is used for telephone wires.
We're in the old days you could do
which is for Ethernet.
Here's a close up of what it looks like. So instead of putting those individual pairs of those individual copper wires into a traditional plug on the other end,
use a punch down tool to put those wires into these little slots
and they'll be map to a poor on the front of the patch panel on with another line of ports.
Patch panels are designed. Thio. Maintain the twist in the cable. You want to have the shortest melt
untwist ID when you go to patch it down
and maintain cable separation to reduce interference.
She had a picture of the front,
so now, so the Ethernet standards. So we'll start with 10 base, too,
which was the oldest one was called Ginette
used collects cabling with a twig plot twist, lock BNC connector like I just mentioned.
Then we went up to Thick Net, which was 10 based five.
The 10 represented the speed, so it was 10 megabytes.
So then we moved up past the thin and thick net, and we started using traditional cat five cable
Uh, we still use the same name convention of 10 based T first over being the speed
and the letter after the dash being if it's twisted, pair see for co ax or effort for using fiber.
So we have 10 based toL 100 based T, which was known as fast Internet
still used Cat five and Cat six Cable, which is a standard today.
Still see quite a bit most. You still see a lot of 100
maximum cable length that is 100 meters
that 100 base Fx's fiber
going at 100 megabytes
with a maximum cable length of two kilometers.
Then the next standard was 1000 base
or two. It's commonly known as gigabit Ethernet
for 1000 megabits per second.
Use the same cabling, but has he kept five e
And he's the same connections as the 10 based tease did,
which is the R J 45 connector
maxim cabling for That's 100 meters
and we have 1000 base X, which is 1000 megabits or one gigabits per second for fiber.
suffix refers to the multi mode and commonly used L C connectors.
And the LX refers to single mode, which commonly used L C and S C connectors.
We're dealing with single mode.
You are dealing with the multi mode. We could go 500 meters and we're dealing with a single mode and go five kilometers again, the single modes of more expensive
that could go further. Another way toe, Another common way to differentiate single mode of multi motor single mode is commonly yellow and fiber and multi motors. Commonly, orange
may not be the same for past cables, but commonly when you're doing the longer runs, single motive yellow and multi motive, the orange
next standard is 10 gigabit ethernet.
Uh, only on fiber right now.
Well, I guess you know also anything yet.
Um, on cape on twisted pair,
uh, 10 gigabytes per second. Use the same twisted pair cable, but has the cat six or cat sick? Say not cat five or cat five e.
Still use the standard R J 45 connector.
So with cat six, we'll go 55 meters
with Cat six a. The augmented cat six. That's 100 meters. So goes almost double the distance.
We look at 10 gigabit
That's multi mode fiber for 10 gigabit,
which would go up to 300 meters.
And then there's 10 G S W, which is the same as us are, but connects to Ethan that lands.
So we also have 10 gigabyte, 10 gigabit l R L W,
which is for single mode fiber
with the max cable length of 10 kilometers,
and E. R and D. W, which is single mode fiber, which up to 40 kilometers, 10 gigabits up to 40 kilometers. That's
that's pretty impressive.
So moving from the winds the land. So the win again is our long distance carrier and go into the land itself, which is your local network into your
and you're inside. Your building is sometimes called the last mile,
so it's how we're gonna get to the wind. So we have
how and most often the win is the Internet.
So how are we gonna do that last mile? We're going to get from our home network to the Internet, and there's a couple of solutions that were going over, including dial up
dollop access was the first way of really getting on the Internet.
We're accessing anything over a long haul connection.
Use the modem to connect to the network across standard telephone lines
and talked to a modem. That was that.
The corporate office, if you're dialing into a company or at the I S. P, if you're trying to get Internet,
wasn't that fast. But I was highly available because almost everyone has a phone line in their house. It was an easy way
to get onto the Internet. Moments were pretty cheap.
Uh, the only downfall was it unless you had a second telephone line, which a lot people didn't it? You couldn't use the phone at the same time.
excuse me And then after modems came broadband using DSLR cable access,
do yourselves a dedicated, always on connection that still went over the telephone lines.
It was faster and dollop, though we had two kinds. We have a synchronous chad download speed, much fashion upload
and a synchronous which had the same speeds for uploading downloads,
used a team or frame relay technology at the data link layer
more. There's still quite a bit of D S L use out there for people who don't have the infrastructure for cable TV, which cable modems requires they don't have co ax or they don't have five or so shin, such as Horizons files.
So the nature big upgrade came with the cable modem,
which was also dedicate Always own connection opposed to
the original Motome, which you had to dial up over the phone lines, used the phone. You know you couldn't make a phone call while you're on there
significantly faster than cable modems. But, well, the downfalls were a few. It went over the co ax cable like you'd have your cable TV, so that was requirement to have your modem's. But the downside was it shared.
The, uh, your band worth was shared with everyone else in your neighborhood.
So if you have, if you lived in a neighborhood with very few people, especially very few people with cable modems probably had a faster connections and most. But as more people start getting on
we started to see a degradation
in the quality of service
because the resource is were shared
which also introduced a potential for eavesdropping intercepting traffic
so that if you didn't for some reason, you lived out in a very rural area that didn't have
cable lines, and you might have just had a really you had a telephone system. But then,
if your religion roll era, they probably provide D a sellout to you, your only other option with satellite access
there's a couple different ways they could done satellite access. Because most common home users are always going to more downloading and upload, and you're always you're not usually sending a lot of information out on the Internet. You're usually just sending okay, I want this Web page, and then what you get back is the download side, and you're always gonna get a lot more when you're downloading a Web page or you're downloading
programs or downloading
any kind of files. So what they do is use the satellite for download, and then you'd use a standard dial up connection with a modem for your uploads. So you send the request for the Web page out over the modem that can be slow, but then the actual download would come over the satellite, which was faster.
It was fast and up, but it was still slower than D S, L or cable.
But again, in rural areas, it might have been the only solution. And it's a lot, lot more expensive,
Using satellite fernet, you're probably also using satellite for your TV.
Then you probably can't do cable modem.
And now, just like we're talking about fiber for
corporations and the speeds of up now they're like there
the major providers air rolling fiber out to neighborhoods.
So you're basically a fiber connection to your house,
and they put in a motor male. Translate that fiber into Ethernet for you or into Cat five,
the two major ones our Horizons files and 18 T U verse.
Google's also starting to roll out their own fiber solution.
It's still not widely available because the infrastructure is not there yet. So, with
with modems, the infrastructure there, everyone had telephone line. Almost everyone, unless you have the remote location and same for cable modems.
Almost everyone had cable TV run to their house, so they already had that co ax medium to use cable,
but five or needs to be rolled out to all those locations. So I'm sure eventually almost everybody will have fibre except in rural areas. But is the fastest solution and still getting faster,
then over that same fiber there? Not also, they're sending more than just your that they're using that for your TV
and telephone service. Also,
so you have a single, so they run fiber to your neighborhood and there'd be a fiber switch
in your neighborhood. And then from that switch, they'd run individual fibers to each house. So how do you think? What kind of fiber are we run into that fiber switch in the neighborhood?
Do you know which ones for long distances?
Yeah, just a single moment. So those would be single mode fibers going those long distances.
And then there are other Option is getting Internet over cellular connections.
A couple different solutions out there right now. Way. Start seeing this more as we used the Internet on our phones on our smartphones to browse the Web, check e mails, and it's also an option for people remote locations. Also, if they can get a self get strong cell phone saying no,
a lot of time that could be faster than any of the other accesses their ableto get fashion satellite.
see, it's easier. Seems really out Maur cell phone towers than they are rolling up fiber because you just have to build one tire, one tower to service live users, and
you have a lot more people using voice.
So we have lt long term evolution a lot Long term evolution live People are also calling it for G
uses. High speed packet access also knows GSM or three chicks. Three. T technology. No, it's usually market is for G. Does that meet the technical standards for the true for G?
But it's still market is for G and most
does up to 22 megabytes.
which is you 2 16? Wireless Standa Standard does 30 to 40 megabytes
uh, per second data rates.
Why? Max is a solution.
Not so much for your mobile phone, but for Internet only in rural areas. So they put like
a top they put in. They put a transmitter on a water tower,
and then you'd have base stations around at various houses, kind of the first way of doing a man. Metropolitan area network