5 hours 31 minutes

Video Description

In this video we discuss the various types of evidence. The key point to remember is that not all evidence is equal! Types of evidence:

  • Direct Evidence - can prove a fact on its own. Typically eyewitness testimony that relies on the five senses.
  • Real Evidence - physical evidence. Typically the objects themselves used in the commission of a crime. The smoking gun!
  • Best Evidence - most reliable form of evidence such as a signed, original contract.
  • Secondary Evidence - expert witness testimony such as from a forensics expert. This type of evidence is unable to stand on its own in a court of law.
  • Corroborative Evidence - supporting evidence.
  • Circumstantial Evidence - proves or suggests another type of evidence.
  • Hearsay - usually not admissible such as copies of contracts or presentation-based evidence such as photos, maps, or x-rays.

We also discuss the role of law enforcement and the scope of the Fourth Amendment which protects against unlawful search and seizure. Issues regarding enticement and entrapment the important differences are also covered.

Video Transcription

Okay, So when we're talking about evidence, we want to talk about the different types of evidence. Not all evidence is equal. So the first type of evidence we have is called direct evidence. And usually what we associate with direct evidence is witness testimony.
And it comes as a direct result of something
that they, uh, information that they obtained through their five senses. Something I've seen, something I've heard and so on.
Now we have really evidence in. That's the smoking gun.
Or that's the laptop used to commit the crime. It's, ah, those physical elements that were used as part of the crime. Almost almost always best evidence. So this is something directly from
the attacker or from thehe Ledge. Dhe attacker will say, and it's something in its original state. So a signed contract, not a copy of the contract, but assigned
Secondary evidence doesn't stand on its own, but it can be used to support things. So a forensics expert, perhaps, were a cryptography expert. Always think of Dexter, who was the blood splatter expert.
Ah, corroborative evidence. Sorry. That was a little morbid. Corroborate corroborative evidence again is going to support the fact that it's not gonna, um, stand on its own saying with circumstantial evidence, circumstantial evidence proves,
uh, something that could be used to suggest another. So, for instance, um,
I tell you how broke I am, and maybe I should just go rob a bank. And then tomorrow a bank near my house gets robbed. That's totally circumstantial, but it could lead up so not admissible on its own or doesn't prove a fact on its own. But it does. Support
hearsay is usually not allowed admissible, so it's secondhand. I heard that she heard
copies of documents are considered to be here saying, and that's very important as well, because cop usually talk about computer evidence, you know, the originals in the ones and zeros. So when we do things like print out logs and files and e mails,
those may be considered copies. So we have to go to great lengths
to show that what we've collected and printed out hasn't been modified.
All right and then demonstrative evidence. These air your visuals, whether it's a map of the crime scene, X rays, diagrams, videotape, but they actually are the visual tools that we can help the jury experience what we've seen
now who does investigation law enforcement and frequently it's the Secret Service in the FBI. I've already mentioned that they need to be very careful about the violation of Fourth Amendment rights
when they're collecting evidence.
Now. When we talked about honey pots, I also talked about enticement, entrapment. It's certainly relevant here. And if you'll remember, that enticement is tempting a potential criminal. Where's entrapment? Is tricking someone into committing a crime? Enticement is legal.
Entrapment is not only not legal, but it's not really ethical as well.

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