Did you know Cybrary has FREE video training? Join more than 2,500,000 IT and cyber security professionals, students, career changers, and more, growing their careers on Cybrary.
In this section we take a deep dive into the all of the different types of evidence. There are two main classes of evidence each with different degrees of strength when it comes to making a case in a court of law. The first type we examine is direct evidence. This type of evidence, which includes real and best evidence, is the most powerful and it alone is sufficient to prove a fact. It typically involves the five senses of a witness and as such, does not require supporting evidence to back it up. Real evidence is physical evidence. It's what's often referred to as the "smoking gun." The final form of direct evidence is what is known as best evidence. This is some of the most reliable evidence and usually involves something from the attacker such as a signed contract in its original state. We then discuss secondary types of evidence. These on their own aren't sufficient to prove a case, but are used instead as supporting evidence. Classes of secondary evidence consist of testimony from expert witnesses, corroborative evidence, circumstantial evidence, hearsay, and demonstrative or presentation-based evidence in the form of photos, maps, x-rays, and diagrams. We conclude this section by raising legal issues again. We note the important distinction between enticement such as using honeypots which were discussed in a previous section versus entrapment which is neither legal nor ethical.