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This lesson covers cryptography. Cryptography produces ciphertext which is a formula consisting of plain text + initialization vector + algorithm + key. In cryptography, the plain text is unencrypted text, the initialization vector (IV) adds randomness to the beginning of the process and the algorithm is the collection of math functions that can be performed. The key is the instruction set on how to use the algorithm. There are two types of cryptography: symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric is fast, has out of band key exchange, no integrity or non-repudiation and is not scalable. Asymmetric is slow, scales to large organizations well, provides non repudiation and the key exchange does not require exchange of any secret information.