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The first topic we examine in this module is that of incident response. We make the distinction between events and incidents and discuss the importance of alerts. An event is an observable change in state of something within the environment being monitored. It is neither positive or negative. An event becomes an incident when it meets certain criteria indicating further investigation. Examples are unauthorized access or inappropriate usage. Alerts are flagged events signalling that closer examination is required. We then discuss several types of attacks such as DoS and DDoS attacks. The goal of these attacks is to affect the availability of a system. They don't typically look to compromise data and often come under the practice of "hacktivism" practiced by such groups as Anonymous in order to make a political statement. Other forms of attacks come in the form of malicious code such as viruses, worms, and logic bombs. Attacks with the goal of obtaining unauthorized access utilize social engineering, password guessing, and exploiting race conditions typically with the goal of stealing data or taking over systems. This section concludes with examining the four steps associated with incident response along with the steps for problem management.