Time
2 hours 28 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
4

Video Description

This module covers network types, network optimization, network ports and protocols and routing and switching. The types of network topologies are: bus, ring, mesh, star, and tree. The instructor greatly emphasizes that many local area networks (LANs) make a Wide Area Network (WAN). The network types are Intranet, Internet and Extranet (perimeter network, DMZ). The module also covers the aspects of network optimization such as load balance, bandwidth, latency, compression and caching. The module ends with network ports and protocols, discussing common ports and routing and switching.

Video Transcription

00:04
Welcome back to Cyberia. I team. I'm assessing Lingam. Today we'll be covering Module three, which is network structure and configuration.
00:11
The overview. This will be covering the networked apologies. The network types optimization,
00:16
the network ports and protocols were also be covering, routing and switching
00:21
nowhere to apologies know anthropology is how the network is organized.
00:26
They could be there in a straight line connected to many devices and so on so forth. We'll be covering each of those.
00:32
We have a bus re mesh star in tree topology.
00:36
Also, it's very important whenever it comes to the cloud that many lands make a wen.
00:41
Many lands make a win as very important. If you have a local area network
00:47
well, to make it a wider network, you might have cities connected whenever cities they're connected. That makes a when your space, your land might be in this building building A.
00:58
But whenever you connect building *** to your site and
01:02
chess a P or your site in Chicago or New York, and you put them together that creates a wen is very important to remember
01:08
bus on the bus topology. Other computers are connected in a straight line most of time. This is used with a BNC connector, not really used the whole watch anymore.
01:18
The main reason why it's not used so much anymore is because if there is a break anywhere in the line, the network goes down
01:25
on each end of the network. Each end of the bus cable there has to be a Terminator to absorb all the data so that away, it's not bounce back.
01:34
The next apology is read. This is where each computer has two connections and that it's connected and continuous circle.
01:42
The purpose behind this is to get everything flowing, so that way it's easier and the networks a little bit faster. There's a token that's passed around each one of the nose, but if there is a break anywhere in the line, the whole entire network goes down.
01:56
The downfall of this would be that the server would be on the ring and that whatever information is passed from one computer to the next, it has to go in a complete circle. So if
02:07
this computer here needs information from this computer, but the ring passes in this direction, well, then it would have to wait its whole entire time. And so it goes from one computer to the next computer. The next apology is mesh, and matches where every computer is connected to every computer on the network might not be fully meshed out.
02:27
However,
02:28
the purpose behind it is for redundancy, so that away every computer is connected, and if one computer goes down, it's able to continue on.
02:36
The downfall of this is if you have 20 peces
02:39
well, you need 20 nix
02:42
in the back of your computer, so that way you can connect to every other computer in there.
02:46
That's the main reason why a lot of PCs are not fully meshed.
02:50
The next apology is star, and Starr is probably the most common topology. Most homes have a star network,
02:58
a star. It would just have a sinner
03:00
central note where it would be hub or switch. And that central node is where all the information is passed through. If one computer goes down,
03:08
it is okay because the central hub is able to pass information back and forth. However, if the central hub goes down, all network connectivity stops.
03:20
Last apology is treat apology
03:23
and the purpose behind a tree topology is a hierarchal structure structure.
03:27
Hierarchal structure allows for
03:30
everybody to be connected, but also
03:34
gives essential note. For each hub is basically like a star connected to a star connected to a star connected to a star, that you have the bottle computers that are just giving information to their parents. And then that information is being passed in the next parent.
03:50
However, if one of the nose goes down, that whole entire branch goes down.
03:53
So if the top no goes down, all connectivity stops. However, if one of the two at the bottom goes down within all the information below, that stops.
04:03
Next. We have network types and network ties. We have Internet, Internet,
04:08
and the extra net action is also called your parameter network because it's the outer reaches of your network. And this is also your diem's allies, which we'll talk more in death. Letter on Your Internet is a private network and is mainly created by the company, and it was maintained by the company
04:25
so that away they're able to give information to the internal network
04:29
for quick access. For instance, forums that your company might be using or
04:34
possibly documentation that needs to be access often would be hosted inside your Internet so that away, they're about to get quick answers back and forth instead of every time that you need to download a document, you've got to go find it online, and then once you find that you download it, if it's offered inside your Internet, you're able to go directly to your Internet,
04:55
and it's
04:55
less
04:56
load on your outside router.
04:59
The Internet is the cloud, and it's not controlled by anybody. But it's the Web, and it is where information is safe.
05:06
A lot of information is safe.
05:09
The
05:10
purpose behind Internet is for a collaboration of entities, for instance, Verizon, Comcast, Cox
05:19
or any of those other people like Google and Amazon. They're part of the Internet, and they allow for users to be able to exchange data freely into offer. Resource is, it uses a series of protocols to send information,
05:34
and it's a combination of many, many lands, and Wen's organized together to create a large cloud.
05:42
Your extra net is the perimeter of your network. This is where most dams these are hosted. The purpose behind the D. M. Z is still that away. It separates the outside users from the inside users. It's the demilitarized zone.
05:56
The action is also a portion of the Internet that has offered out to the public suffered out into the cloud and Paris behind this is
06:05
in case
06:06
and a person or an entity knees information that is offered by a bait. Well, they might put information on their *** C or extra net sled away. A user or another company can go onto their Web page and download what they need.
06:21
The next lie is networked organization and network optimization. We have low balancing band with light and see compression in cashing
06:29
low bouncing is distributing the load sled away and, said one router. Be overworked that is, giving information to to routers. You have to routers installed side by side. Each one has a lying going out to a different company, say Verizon and Comcast or some other company, and it allows the distribution of load
06:48
thataway. One router is getting overworked.
06:50
Ban wet, On the other hand is the amount of speed that you're offering out. For instance, 10 megabits per 2nd 10 megabits is the amount of band with ah 100 megabits per 2nd 100 megabits is the band with If you have a garden hose, a garden host puts out so much water. But if you have a
07:11
fire, how's your host? It puts out a lot more water.
07:13
That's the comparison of band with a garden hose to a fire hose.
07:17
Legacy legacy is amount of time that it takes information to get relayed back and forth. The higher the legacy, the worst the network would be.
07:26
And this example, when
07:29
M. S that is the Layton C. M. S sends for milliseconds.
07:33
And then this is the amount of time that it takes for that packet of information to get from one place to another place. Compression is a similar form of encryption.
07:43
Compression allows you to take a file and to compress it to a form that is unreadable and that you need a program that can read that file extension to be able to read it. Cashing
07:55
casting allows for a swords of frequently access data. The purpose behind cashing is still that away. Your computer doesn't have to go to the Internet every time it needs information.
08:05
For example, you go to Google. When have you type in Devon ever w dot google dot com and then you hit. Enter it goes to the Internet and in pulls Google's Paige back to you.
08:16
Well, what cashing will do is take that page. Say that locally on your computer, slide away whenever you type in google dot com again, it goes to your direct computer instead of going out to the Internet. That away, if many, many people are going to Google, they're gonna go to their local server, pull the cash and access what they need
08:35
without having to go to the Internet.
08:39
The next thing we're gonna talk about its network ports and protocols,
08:41
handsome common ports, these they're coming for us. That was strongly recommend learning
08:46
FTP, which is Port 20 and 21 telling that port 23 s s H 22 at some T p. 25 d. N s 53
08:54
the H C p 67 68
08:58
t ftp, which is 69 http 80 Pot three, which is one tim.
09:05
It's one of the ports have a specific function and the purpose behind port so that away the network knows what to do with the information. For example, FTP that's followed transfer protocol.
09:16
One port is the transfer falls back and forth, and then the other four is a control.
09:20
Tell Net. Is the access the computer remotely? It's using command prompt. Sshh is the exact same. However. Sshh is secure from TV is with email that is sending out e mails
09:33
D. N s sends for domain name server, and that's that allows you to be able to translate
09:39
www dot google dot com into an i p. Address.
09:45
D. A C p is used to get an I P address
09:48
and T F T P is the same as FTP, but it's for trivial fouls.
09:54
A city p is allows you to browse the Web
09:56
popped three that is
10:00
receiving emails.
10:01
Next, we have
10:03
network News transfer protocol, which is 1 19 Network. Tom Protocol 123
10:09
Internet Message Access Protocol 1 43
10:13
S N O. T. 1 61 on 1 62
10:16
l dap
10:18
3 89 https for 43 our DP 33 89
10:24
an n tp that allows you to get information via your network.
10:30
NTP allows you to make sure that the time it syncs up from servers. Workstations.
10:35
I'm at four is another way of getting email.
10:39
The difference between I'm at four and pop three is pop three. Once you receive email from pop three, it deletes it on the server.
10:48
Think of what it stands for. A post office protocol. When if you go to the post office, you receive a letter from them. They don't have the letter anymore. Well, I'm at four Internet message access protocol. It saves it. You're just accessing the web whenever you use. I'm at four that it saves it on the server.
11:05
And if you delete it, delete it from the server. But it's not saved onto your device. Your mobile device
11:11
S and M t. That is, ah, network management protocol.
11:15
A lot of companies turn this off because it gives out too much information for the network.
11:20
And the Packers were able to get inside of your network. They're able to see inside your network
11:26
held up commonly used with active directory. A lot of people don't know, but active directory isn't a protocol on its own. It uses l'd apt to be able to perform the function. It uses the schema https, that is
11:41
the exact same was Web browsing, But that's secure if you log on to a bank. If you ever look in your address bar else, it'll switch from a C D P T a C T P s. And that means that your Web browsing you're secure.
11:54
Rdp has remote desktop and that allows you to access a computer from any other computer as if you're logged onto that PC. It is important to remember the port number and the port needs.
12:05
For instance, while I was taking my test, I remember one question that asked me
12:11
what port uses UDP, and it didn't give me port names. It gave me port numbers. And if I didn't know that 25 was TCP and had to do with SMTP, that could have gotten this question wrong.
12:24
Or that
12:24
53 was TCP and UDP, which is D. N s or 67 68 is UDP on Lee.
12:33
But that is the A c. P.
12:35
I didn't know that. Then I would have gotten that question wrong. Next we're gonna cover Routing and switching were rotting. We have Nat Pat villain and routing tables.
12:43
That sense were network address translation. The purpose behind that is the highest. Your internal networks I p. Address. When have you browse the Web
12:52
behind the Net server
12:54
instead of your I P address or your own name being broadcast to the world? It's going to be that end
13:01
server that in router that's going to be broadcast out side away. The internal network is secure. So we have packers were trying to get inside the network. There will only be able to access that outside device and be able to see it versus accessing all the way through and getting to the internal network. Pat is very similar,
13:20
but it provides many internal devices mapping
13:24
of a single internal i p address. So that way, if many devices are trying to access the Web at the exact same time, it will give them an I. P address. It isn't really their i p address. It allows you to access the Web, and hackers won't know what the internal addresses Villain villain is very important whenever it comes to
13:43
the internal network.
13:45
For example, you have a five story building, and each story has his own the land. The purpose behind that s O that away. That story can only access its floor
13:56
if,
13:58
for one is villain five for two. Villain, 10 for three villain,
14:03
15 for for the land, 24 5 gallon 25. Well, then, if you're a part of your villain, you can only see your network.
14:13
Another thing is with wireless and rather's are able to implement a procedure. So that way there are part of their own v lance.
14:22
This would be This is very important when if you go to places like Starbucks or Chick fil A, where they offer free WiFi.
14:30
If they offered this villain and offer a separation of every note that whenever one phone or one computer connects to the network, it will only be able to access itself. And the person sitting beside you who you do not know won't be able to access your information
14:46
routing tables.
14:46
Robin tables are stored on the router, and they're basically a table of information that allows the user to be able to access the device or host
14:56
through a quick means.
14:58
The purpose behind a round table is so that away, the internal network is able to know the next hop outside of their network that if you're going to Comcast or Verizon or it's a Google or some other place, you'll be able to go to that next hop and continue one that you won't have to search out or your packet will not have to search out and to be able to go to the next network.
15:18
In this module we covered networked apologies, types, optimization, ports and protocol routing and switching. I'm just linguine with library I t. You guys learn a lot?

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Justin Langham
System and Network Engineer
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