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Modern Ethernet In this chapter, we will explore modern Ethernet systems. This includes covering the different types of 100-megabit Ethernet, the difference between copper and fiber Gigabit Ethernet, and different types of Gigabit Ethernet. Ethernet only comes in four speeds: 10 Mb, 100 Mb, 1GB, and 10GB per second. There is always a limit of 1024 nodes and a distance limit of 100 m. 100 Mb Ethernet, like 100BaseT4, uses CAT 3 and has disappeared from the market. 100BaseTX is the new standard and is the better alternative. 100BaseTX uses CAT 5 cabling and allows for multispeed configurations. Multispeed negotiates with the switch automatically and can use 10BaseT or 100BaseT. To distinguish the two from each other, look for details located on the card itself. 100BaseFX revolves around UTP or fiber optic. The phrase fast Ethernet refers to these 100 Mb standards. These connections can operate in half or full duplex mode. Half-duplex means you cannot send or receive at the same time, while full duplex means you can. Different solutions may require half of the full duplex mode. Gigabit Ethernet involves the 802.3ab standard, or the 1000BaseX standard. The 1000BaseCX standard utilizes a twin axial shielded cable with a max distance of 25 m. 1000BaseSX is more widely accepted with a maximum length of 200 to 500 m and uses an SC connecter. 1000BaseLX is a single mode laser fiber with a maximum length of 5 km or even longer with repeaters. 1000BaseLX is typically used as a backbone. There are some problems with ST and SC connectors, as they could take up too much space for ports or become damaged while being twisted. As a solution, the SFF, MT-RJ, and LC connectors allow for more secure connections. This certification requires you to learn all of these types of connection standards and their statistics. 10 Gigabit Ethernet, or 10 GbE, is relatively new and is only available in high-level LANs. Solutions have been suggested to maintain integrity within these networks like using fiber networks on WAN fiber. As a result, we now have a standard for SONET infrastructure with maximum signal distances, types of fiber being used, laser wavelength, and signal types. These networks are named as 10GBase, with x representing the type of fiber and y representing the standard for the physical layer. R means LAN and W means SONET/WAN signaling. 10BaseSy uses a short connection while 10BaseLy uses a long-wavelength connection on a single fiber. 10BaseEy uses an extra-long-wavelength on a single fiber, and 10 GbE connector standards are set by the manufacturer. Copper-based 10GBaseT is an IEEE standard that can run from 55 to 100 m depending on whether CAT 6 or CAT 6a cabling is being used. You need to know all of these standards and their cabling statistics. These 10 GbE connections may require a single router with several connections. The solution to this is an MSA, or multisource agreement, that allows the device to provide an internet connection to multiple devices. These networks rely on what is called backbones, and these backbones connect each floor to the main network switch. The details behind each version of Ethernet are important to know, and later on we will explore switches in-depth.