Hi and welcome to cyber dot i t. My name's Anthony and I'm your local subject matter expert for Network Plus. And today we're gonna be talking about setting up and planning a basic network. So when we're preparing to plan and to set up a small network environment and we need to make sure that we go through our Siri's of checks
to make sure that we are setting up that environment so that it is meaning all the requirements
and it's meeting all of the specifications of our business now, our very first step in planning our network is going to be listing our requirements. Now, these requirements aren't just going to be things such as our hardware devices, like our network interface cards and our cables and our switches and routers. But it's also going to include things such as
the number of users we have in our network, the potential for growth and our network. Our business requirements are budget constraints.
It includes abstract ideas that we also need to include in when we're planning our network. It's best to spend a long time planning and preparing for our network before we go out and buy or installing the equipment because we'd rather think of it first before we run into any problems on the field after we've already bought and paid money for certain equipment.
So let's go through some of these different steps, some of these different requirements that we may need to evaluate before we install our network. Now, one of our very first requirements that we want to check is going to be our business needs and our budget constraints. Now our business needs and our budget constraints are going to be two of the biggest
factors that go into designing our network.
Our business needs are going to include things such as Web servers that we may be hosting for our clients or may include the ability for user's to our own employees to connect to a file server so they can share files or the ability for them to VPN from home.
All of these are different business needs that our network needs to fulfill,
so we need to make sure that we talk with management. We evaluate our network and we decide and we list out each of these business meet needs so that as we're designing our network were able to fulfill them.
Then we have our budget constraint. Now, aside from our business needs, our budget constraint is gonna be one of the biggest factors that determine how we set up our network. We can't go out and buy a rack of $1000 routers if our budget is goingto only be $5000 to design this entire small network,
we need to make sure that we keep our budget constraints in mind very early on
and that we use those budget constraints when we're just deciding how we're gonna design our network and realize that we may need to compromise in some areas for the sake of our budget.
Then we have our number of users. Now, our number of users is simply the number of people that we have in our environment that we need to service a network to. We need to know our number of users to allow us to determine things such as how many sports we need for our switches, or have what kind of cabling we need to run through our environment,
or how many workstations air network interface cards that we may need
when we're determining our number of users. We also want to account for growth. We don't want to just say Okay. Well, I have 24 users in this office, so I only need to fulfill that many ports on a switch Well, within the next year or two there, maybe 10 more users in that office.
So we need to have an idea of what the expected growth is for this network
and plan for a little bit of growth because we would. We don't want to run into the issue where we're completely redesigning a new network two or three years down the road or we're patching things up here and there because we didn't plan for the net. We didn't plan for any network growth.
Next, we have our i p addressing. Now, after we've determined our business needs and our budget constraints and our number of users, we may need to sit down and evaluate how are how our I p addressing scheme is gonna work in our network now, depending on if we want to separate our network into multiple different different V lands,
if we wanna have multiple different sub nets in our network,
we're depending on how we need to segregate are different. Network environments
allows us to have an idea of how we should set up our I p addressing if we have a very small home office that just has one or two users and they all are on the same network and they don't really need any segregation that we could just use a standard Class C address space just a standard 1 92.1 68.1 dot whichever address. We don't have that many users. They don't need to be separated
if we have an environment where we're setting up
lab space is in the same network where they're also sales computers and there are marketing computers. And there are servers that host documents that we don't want some people being able to get to that we may need Thio have the ability to set a 1,000,000,000 set up sub netting
and we need to have the IP address space. To do that, we need to select an I P address scheme that allows us to make those changes.
Now our other consideration with I p addressing is going to be what public addresses we have assigned to us from our Internet service provider. If we only have one public I p address and we say, Oh, well, we want to provide all this different extents ability and all these different Web servers that host all these different sites
or we won't allow for multiple different BP ends. And we want our VP in connection to be a different address than our Web server address.
Well, we may need to re evaluate that, or we may need to look at getting more public I p addresses. So we need to make sure that we check our I P addressing not just our private addresses but also our public addresses.
Next, we have our type of hardware. Now the hardware in our environment includes everything from work stations to network interface cards, two switches and routers, things that are pre exit that may already be pre existing in our network. So we need to take if we're not just building a network from scratch, which very few times we will be,
we will have to take these other hardware pieces into consideration when we're adding our network around it.
If we have network interface cards in computers that are only compatible up to a certain cat, then we may need to make sure that all of our switches and routers are also compatible with that. If we have routers or switches in our network that are already working at one level or they're already set up to do some certain V land functions,
we need to make sure that our additional pieces of the network that we put in our compatible with that
in addition to our hardware that we have already installed in our network, we need to get an idea of what type of hardware, what requirements we need to put on our hardware that we're going to install on our network now if we're just putting it. If we're taking. If we say oh well, I just need a switch that just provides
a couple different ports I don't need to have any management on it.
I don't need to do any traffic shaping or port marrying or villains. Well, then we don't really need toe by Go out and buy an expensive manage switch. We can do fine with an unmanaged switch or if we just need a we want to just get on all in one device that performs routing and switching and
allows us to have a very, very small home office with one of two users that are all connecting into this device
that we don't wanna have to go out instead of just buying this on Lee. One device we don't want to say, Well, let's buy a router and a switch and the hardware firewall and an I. D. S. That's not the type of hardware that we need in this environment. So when you need to take all that into consideration when we're determining what type of hardware we're going to use,
our next R next requirement we need to check is going to be our service provider equipment and our Internet connection. Our server provider service provider equipment will include things such as our point of demarcation. It will include our different routers that Internet service provider may have installed.
Verizon may have installed a router already for us, and that router is what we need to go through. In order to connect to the Internet.
We may have a fiber cable that comes into our building and plugs into a fiber router. We need to make sure that we're able to use that equipment, that our equipment is going to be compatible with that equipment and that we check their equipment for any settings that may need to be changed. Such a ziff that router is has the ability to be a wireless router.
We may need to turn off that wireless ability so that we don't have that wireless router
broadcasting out a different network. We may need to turn off D H cp on that particular device. We want to check out all our Internet service providers equipment and make sure it's gonna be compatible with our network edition.
Next, we have our local servers and our cabling. Now, our local servers are going to include everything from our Web servers to our file servers to our email servers, D. H C. P. D. N s servers, all the rest. We need to make sure that our network has the ability to take these and connected these servers into our network
and be able to provide quick connective ity to these devices to our workstation
and also make sure that we do. Things such as setting up static addresses on these devices may be setting up static routes if necessary, and making sure that these devices can talk to anywhere they need to on the network, maybe even setting up for our website. We need to make sure we have static Nat set up.
So we need to check out our servers. We need to understand what servers we have in our environment
and what features and rolls they provide. And then using that knowledge when we design our network and we take that into consideration,
then we have our cabling. Our cabling is going to include not just the physical cabling we need to go out and purchase to install all of the different devices on our network. But we also need tohave an idea, and it's best to actually have ah, blueprint of the physical environment where we're going to be installing these different devices.
So we need to have our cabling
physical layout. Our physical layout is important because it allows us to recognize good places that we could put network closets in, or how we want to run the cabling through the ceiling or through the floor in the wall allows us to say, Oh, well, I need to avoid
putting a wireless access point here because it's not going to radio. There's not going to send out a signal very well or or I can set up a switch here
because it's going to provide me with multiple. It's gonna provide me with the ability to act. Give access to multiple users in this one office. We also need a physical layout and we want a physical layout this to scale so that we can measure out. And we can determine what the distances will be between our different devices. Because remember,
if we are laying Kat far were for laying
Ethernet cable. We typically don't want to exceed 100 meters in length on that cable. At past that point will notice signal degradation will notice some issues with the packets. So we want to make sure that we are checking and saying, Oh, I'm not
sending a cable over 100 meters link between this spot in this spot without having an additional device in between, such as a router or switch
and then we have our printers. Now our printers are very important in our modern office environments because they allow us to pronounce our physical documents. We need to make sure that if we're setting up large corporate printers that people are able to map to that address, people are able to connect to it who need to connect to it. They're on the same network
on the same. Be land around the same sub net as that printer.
Or we may need to set up printers per office, just smaller printers that service a couple of users. And we need to know howto have those set up and segments it around in our network. So printers aren't something that we want to want. Thio neglect When we're thinking about how we're going to set up our network and how we're gonna set up our I P addresses
and then we have our W land are W Land is going to be our wireless land, and we need to determine how we're going to set up our wireless network to interact with our standard network. If we have a wireless network that we don't necessarily want to be on our same corporate network, we may need to set up a wireless access point that then connects into a router
that think that also service is our network, and they have two different I p addressing schemes.
We may not want people on a wireless network to be able to access our servers or are our printers or some of our other devices on our corporate network. So we need to understand how we want our wireless networks set up. We need to understand things such as what speeds we want on our wireless network,
what compatibility is there needs to be with our different network interface devices
and how wide spread our wireless needs to be. So when we set up our wireless network, we're setting it up properly, and we're not having to go out and re buy routers because we bought the incorrect ones the first time.
Then we have a redundancy in our up time now redundancy. It allows us to set up things such as multiple devices, forming loops and forming additional links to other devices in case certain devices go down. Redundancy is simply, ah, word that means
setting up devices so that if one goes down,
we're still able to make a connection. Now, when we're establishing redundancy, we need to make sure that our redundancy isn't causing issues such as having loops and our network that we need to mitigate by spanning tree protocol. So wanna check and we'll make him one that we need to determine how redundant our network needs to be
Now. How much we focus on redundancy
is very much determined by what are required up. Time is, if we're told by management Hey, this network can't be down for more than five minutes a year, then we need to make sure that we have a lot of redundancy. We have a lot of fail over's not just
links and cables, but also routers and switches imports.
We have fail over devices so that if one device fails, will be able to fail over to a secondary device until that primary device is fixed. So we need to understand how our up time, how much, how much time we need to be up, what percentage of the time we need to be up. And the most managers will tell, you know, we need to be up 100% of the time. Well,
and we can be up 99.999% of the time, but 100% of the time is just not realistic because some things can happen. Um, unexpected network issues can occur, And the more percentage the more 1000.99 nines percentage up time that you want,
the more expensive your network is gonna be because you're gonna have to have those additional links and those additional fail overs and people who know how to set up very redundant, very, very compatible networks so that you minimize the amount of time that you're down.
So make sure that you allow you let the managers know that. And you let the people that you're setting up the network know that realistically so that they can plan their budget constraints accordingly, and they can let you know. Okay, well, if we're down for
an hour or two a week, it's not that big of a deal. We don't. We're not eight. We don't have to be up 24 7 Well, then you can say Okay, well, maybe we just We need a couple additional links here and there, but we don't need to have a full secondary network infrastructure on standby in case our primary goes down, and then we have our security concerns
our security concerns may include things such as
How are wireless land, how we connect to our wireless land and the encryption that we have on our wireless land may include things such as setting up Mac filtering on our switches and are on our different ports and our routers. How how stringently. We've set our firewall rules coming inbound and outbound
how we set up authentication between our different users if we're gonna use things
like smart cards And if we're gonna use use protocols like a 22.11 X, which is a protocol which helps us with security, we're gonna use things like I p sec. So we need to understand what our security concerns are, what our security requirements are. And if we're just a
maybe we're just a small lab network
that people are just gonna be working on some computers on, and they're just gonna be doing some basic basic basic software and basic word document processing. Then we may not need
all the all of the security requirements that say, If we were setting up a network for a small bank, would, um
we need to make sure that we are being realistic about our budget constraints as well as what we're protecting in our network. Because yes, everyone wants to be feel secure. And everyone's gonna tell you they want your their network toe have absolutely no holes and be completely and totally secure. Well, sometimes you have to make a decision between functionality
and security. If we took all of our computers and took all of our data's and data and locked them in a steel box
and through that steel box in the bottom of the ocean, well, that data secure but were not able to use it. So we need to make sure that we're we're balancing functionality versus security, and we also include our realistic budget constraints in there.
Then we have our growth expectations. We need to make sure that we're realistically addressing possible growth within our environments within 25 10 years because we don't want to set up a network that we set up and we met. And we have that could function with
about 20 to 30 users, and we're currently at 27 users
and then two years down the road were at 45 users, and we're having issues on our network. People aren't being able to connect properly. We have people that have to run network cables across the floor to a unmanaged switch that somebody bought from Best Buy that can they connected to a poor coming out of the wall.
We want to make sure that we don't have those issues in our network,
So we need to We need to take growth into consideration, and we need to understand that growth is a possibility. So we realistically addressed that with management when we're designing how our network is set up.