Linux File Systems

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Linux File Systems This lesson covers Linux file systems, which are different from Windows file systems: - NTFS, FAT32 - Removable media: FAT/VFAT, FAT32 Linux has several options to build machines: - Ext2 - Ext3 - Ext4 - JFS - Reiser (or ReiserFS) - XFS This lesson also covers Linux partitions: - Root - Swap - Swap size - Low RAM/Low disk - Low RA...

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6 hours 20 minutes
Video Description

Linux File Systems This lesson covers Linux file systems, which are different from Windows file systems: - NTFS, FAT32 - Removable media: FAT/VFAT, FAT32 Linux has several options to build machines: - Ext2 - Ext3 - Ext4 - JFS - Reiser (or ReiserFS) - XFS This lesson also covers Linux partitions: - Root - Swap - Swap size - Low RAM/Low disk - Low RAM/high disk - High RAM/low disk - High RAM/high disk In partitioning, it is important to know: - Modem utilities are non-destructive - Parted - Gparted - Built into installer or separate

Video Transcription
Welcome to sign Very 18.
My name's Greg Stuart, and I'm your subject matter expert for Lennox. Plus
in module tool to we're gonna start off with part one talking about Lennox file systems,
Lennox file systems. They're just a little bit different than the window spot systems that you're used to.
So right off the bat, the slide is talking about all the different types of file systems that there are. So with windows, I'm sure you've heard of in the past NT f s
or fat 32 of fat 16 fat 32 some removable media being fat or be fat, fat 32
and Lennox, You have several options to build your machine on. You have e X t to 63 64
jfx riser or riser infested except fest
or what were mainly focused on this course is E x t 23 and four.
And in reality and most of the times when you're building
Lennox virtual machines these days or Lennox boxes are installing desktops. You're gonna be choosing either e x t three or 64.
So let's talk about some of the differences. So with with originally with the legacy Windows file systems. We were dealing with fat 16 and fat 32.
So fat 16 on Lee had a two gigabyte
max partition, which
you know back then, you know, early nineties late eighties that was fairly good size. That was a lot of pebbles, a lot of, Ah love storage,
and you can get by with an entire file system being contained within two gigs. But today, with our different kinds of environments and
the way that we navigate the environment, all the different plug ins, et cetera, the two gigabytes just would not cut in today's environment in today's desktops in the 64 bit architecture.
So then they moved on to fat 32 which bumped it up a little bit more double toe double the size of the file system. That four gigs,
Um, and that was pretty solid for a while. And then NT f s finally came along. And that seems to be the default,
Um, go to file system for Windows at this point time with a two terabyte, which is 2000 gigabytes. That's a two terabyte file system
for Windows. So that's that's a fairly sizable platform, and one that's gonna be around for for a while with Windows.
in comparison with Lennox we talked about earlier. E x t to t x t three and t x t Four of those are Lennox file systems.
So with Lennox file systems
e x teeth be 62
originally right off the bat, it comes out with two terabyte file system,
which is good where that's actually legacy.
And what we want to build on these days is either you 63 64 63 is also two terabytes,
which is standard. This is your standard installation. Who bun to This is what I'm installing throughout this class. My file system is gonna be based off of the X t three,
which is two terabyte file system,
Um, in search of certain situations. If you have a lot going on, maybe if your developer programmer etcetera
and you know you're going to need the space and you want to go a little bit further outside of the non standard installation which we just won't do in this course you're gonna want installed 64 which is gonna give you 16 terabyte or 16,000 gigabytes of space for your file system
fairly unnecessary This point in time, I can't for see us going outside of that 16 terabytes in the next 10 15 years or so with a CE faras false is your concern
so far, our course and for my desktop, my dentist demonstration, desktop,
uh, gonna be focused on showing you guys an e x t three file system, which is just your standard installation at two terabytes.
So what What is what is one of the main differences between the X t 3 64 outside of the act? The sheer size of the file system is that
the X t three is actually going to keep
all the files in block format, whereas you 64 is going to fragment the files.
So the X t three and we talked about that. And in Windows, if you've been a Windows admin or even at home, you've been pretty savvy at home with keeping the maintenance on your computer up to date,
you can run a tool called this defrag or dis Defragmenter.
What that does is that basically rearranges all the different fragmented files for easier access on your spending hard disk.
You're spinning media that is, if you have a an actual spinning magnetic disk as opposed to a
a supposed to assault ST drive, So
e x t three the need tohave Dis de frag is obsolete because they use blocks.
All the files are kept together and blocks as opposed to fragment of vials.
So with the X t four, you're not dealing with blocks of dealing fragmented files. Since the sheer size of the file system
having it in blocks would just not be as effective as having it span across fragments. So there's the d fractal for Lennox that you that you would use strictly if you were inside of a 64 file system,
which again, we're not gonna be dealing with that. But this is just for your knowledge. Maybe he asked a question on the test about the difference between the XTC three
in the X t four night gives you kind of a good idea what? What to look for?
Just remember that you 63 is your standard installation.
Yes, see for
nonstandard and then the difference in size.
now we know the file systems a little bit about foul systems. Ajay fast riser or accept fest.
You could look those up on your own. We're not gonna cover those much, and there won't be covered in the exam.
Um, if they do, it'll be a one off question. And if you don't know, the answer is probably fine.
But if you want to go ahead on your own time and look up the definition of those three and see the prevalence of those, that's fine. But we're focusing mainly on what's gonna be on the test. What's
what's relevant, what you're doing in your day to day administration.
s so then you have your phones to know. I understand we're inside of an E x t three file system.
Now we have to talk about partitions. So just like in Windows, we still have partitions.
So the difference being your C drive in windows gonna end up being your route drive. In Lenox, there's no see driving legs.
So the nice thing about that is, if you know, see if you know your route.
You know, at any point in time you're in the route drive. You know that you're the hero of the very bottom where the root of the of the partition
of the entire file system, actually,
so on. That's and we'll demonstrate that here. Briefly, I'll show you that what the different partitions look like,
so you'll have your route in your swamp partitions. Those were two main and most important partitions on your drive. Anything above and beyond. That would be personal preference.
As far as partition your hard drive. The route is obviously the most important, and it will be there by default.
You can change the size of your route partition. That's up to you. What size you want to make it.
Um, I've always just generally sticked with a default. I don't see. There's anything you need to go above and beyond the default partition size for your route partition
for your swamp, it's gonna be a little bit different.
So again, if you felt with Windows, you know there's a swat filer and Windows a page file where you're going to If you have,
let's say you're running on a laptop or a desktop that has eight gigs of installed ram or memory.
What you want to make sure and do is that you have
at least good rule of thumb is at least double what you're ram is for your swap size of your swap partition.
So here they give a few examples and this is probably just slightly outdated. As faras ram sizing goes, Don't say you're low Rams 512 mags or one gigs or 512 magazine. You're you're swap sizes. Gonna be one gig,
Same with Lower Ram. Your high disc is 1 to 2 gigs, etcetera. So I would say it's a general rule of thumb if you if you have. If you're running a laptop with eight gigs of memory or eight Gigs of Aram, you want to go ahead and make your your swap partition at least double s. So I'm gonna do 16 gigs.
And, you know, I would even go so far as to just bump it up to 20 just just for the extra space. If you have it. Of course,
it all really depends on your own. Physical resource is especially if you're running virtual machines, whatever. Whatever physical resource is you dedicate to your virtual machine. When that version she's powered on, they're gonna be locked up that virtual machine,
whatever it is that's on your laptop, is gonna be shared via the hyper visor is a broker. So you want to be careful that you don't over commit The physical resource is to your virtual machine.
Now, in the instance that you're actually running a desktop
or a separate stand a little laptop that's not a virtual machine. If you're running a physical machine, then
you're just gonna base it off of whatever your physical resource is air available. So it
and that in that sense, it's a little bit better to have an actual physical,
um, physical drive because it won't mess with you. Are you know, if you have an actual hyper ah, single bare metal hyper visor solution where you're actually like of'em were solution where you're building virtual machines on top of a high Preiser, as opposed to a host of hyper visor like via more workstation infusion?
It's It's an easier situation to deal with RAM and over commitment than you would if you were running a post a solution like we are.
So I'm keeping my ram, my rams fairly low on why I believe I have four gigs around with my a bunch of machine.
My swamp partitions gonna be
eight gigs at most crucial. I said it eight case and no more because I'm gonna be using that if it's up and running.
So why do we need a swamp file?
Take a second to think about. Why would you need a SWAT file?
So don't understand that you have to understand what swap files do.
Okay, so swamp your swamp value swap partition is going to act as a ZA buffer is an overflow buffer overflow.
So if you're utilizing RAM ally of a high a couple of applications that are utilizing hi memory, you can actually move some of those some of that I over to your swap partition and free absolutely ram for other applications. So when you come back to the application, that's actually fairly noisy application.
It will pull down from the swamp, as opposed to hogging up the ram memory. So it's a it's a good kind of a bucket toe. If you're overflowing on your ram over utilizing and you've overcommitted
using some really noisy applications, they're gonna wanna have a decent sized swap partition so that it handles that
so swap files he comes in, you can come in and you know in crunch time and very important if you're especially if you're running
Lennox Machine or Lennox Server with a ah lot of IO for an application that's posted on that server, you want to make sure that your swap partition is sized is right size for that,
so that's important part to think about it. That's definitely something that will be, but you'll be questioned on the exam
and then partitioning, so there's several different ways that you could partition. So there's modern utilities there nondestructive
in the past.
When you're installing, they've Lennox has come a long way to wear in the past. You would be doing strictly everything on the command line utility.
Now a lot of us that aren't from
late eighties early nineties computing era We're not used to constantly being inside of the command line interface like they were. Then we have We have gooey options. We have a graphical interface that we can interact with computer hardware.
So we're not We're not as focused as we used to be on the command line, However, there are some that prefer to work from the command line.
I find it to be kind of a dangerous area to be in, especially if you don't have a ton of experience with the command line and understanding what commands do what?
Cause you could do a lot of damage by entering a wrong command or entering a command that should be entered in a different area. If you're on the route partition or if you in your root file and you enter command, you could end up erasing your entire your entire file system. So it's it's dangerous working from the command line at times, if you're not
savvy with all the different commands and what they do
so I would suggest what we're gonna what we're gonna do mainly for the installation of this, our installation to demonstration is gonna be from the gooey.
There's a couple different ways you can do it. So the Wizard, actually, when we're installing a bun, too, it's gonna be from a wizard,
which is how how Bunty works.
It's fairly user friendly. It's not meant it to be complicated,
and it's gonna walk you through step by step. What did he was gonna walk you through partitioning setting up,
choosing the file system you want setting the size of your file system
again. For 63 we're gonna go to two terabytes
and then you're gonna have to choose this different size of your your swamp partitions route partition.
That's all gonna be done through a wizard
above and beyond that once you're installed and let's say you need to let's say you're operating a high posted hyper visor like workstation infusion
and you're a bunch of machines is a virtual machine.
And let's say you want to expand your route partition by 50 gigabytes. Well, how do you do that?
Well, you can do it through the command line, but if you don't understand command line, how to interact with the command line and you're not confident with it,
you're gonna want something that has the graphical interface is a little bit easier to understand. So there's a couple of solutions are out there, so parted,
which stands to naturally, is kind of an acronym, but it stands for partition. Editor parted. It's pronounced parted
was also G parted,
which is another which is another form of parted part. It is more of the legacy partitioning editor where his G part is more we're gonna use will be using, she parted.
When we get to that point of the of the course,
um, you can
had built into the installer or you can download it is a separate program. But let's go to the gonna jump outside of the
presentation here and let's go to
the Internet
and look up the G parted websites. You can get an idea of what it looks like. We're gonna go to g parted dot org's
This is the gnome partition editor and known We're gonna get into talking about what No man is. Katie E X, f c e All those things. Those are all different desktop environments for LAX.
Mainly, we're gonna be dealing with gnome. You're gonna get a little experience with the unity desktop. Some with who, bun two. It's a different feel different environment well given to We'll get into that Maurin later parts different models, of course,
But here on the Jeep parted G part of that Oregon website, you can go ahead and go in download.
You can download it onto a live CD or USB, where you can just again. It's not actually doing any partitioning on your drive. You're not installing it. You're just gonna be able to play with it
where you can actually downloaded a regular downloads. Gonna create a nice O phile.
And if you have, if you have a program like Virtual Clone Dr that'll actually mounted like it's CD or ah, DVD rahm,
then you can do that. Otherwise you have to burn to a CD and pop it in your CD ROM drive.
I personally use Virtual Clone Dr because it makes it a lot easier and the virtual machine
software Veum O'Rourke station picks it up easily and sees it as an ice.
So about here is this is a free partition editor and obviously being Lennox ah, derivative Lennox, it's gonna be free and open source
graphically managing your disk partitions
with G party. You can resize copy and move partitions without day loss, enabling you to grow or shrink your C drive great space for your new operating systems or attempted to rescue.
So that's a good point this is gonna allow you to see is gonna actually like you to visually see,
you know what kind of different file systems are operating system you have so you can actually do a duke dual boot situation where if you want to install Windows partition, you can do that using G parted
that you can have a dual boot situation where if you want a boot into Bunty, you can or if you decide you want to boot into a window. Seven. When does not one you can do that?
Having two different partitions?
I'm going down. You could see some features. There's a bunch of different features
created elite resized or move check label.
Then in them, it shows you the manipulated file system. These are all the files systems that you can actually manipulate with G parted
Begin, you can see here 62 3 and four were honey X T three.
There's fat 16 and fat 30 tools or extremely, the Legacy file systems.
Um, is your limit swap in T. F s riser riser for us, except this so you can do this on a bunch of different
file systems.
But here's a screenshot from G parted
where you can see what it would look like. So
you have one partition. This is your death. SDA to partition is 33 to 11 gigabytes. You have another partition which is deaf SDA fives is 24.79 gigabytes.
I've been down here. You can see the different partitions, so you've got actually to nt f s partitions
in the X t four partition and then Olynyk swap partition. So here you can see the linen swap is two gigs.
This is probably telling me that his Ramus somewhere around 5 12 to 1 gig for rain
So he is a fairly small swap. Partition just depends on your comfort level and sensitivity of the work that you have on your file system.
So this is an idea of what a partitioning tool look like and they're very helpful.
And it could get you through having to go. You can get get around, having to go through the command line interface,
possibly entering a wrong command.
Here you can. You see. You have all these tools graphical. It's very easy to see in use. There's a green check for apply, tells you what disc you're working on.
It's very easy to understand where you are and what you're doing, as opposed to using the command line over the command line, can be a very powerful tool.
You just have to understand how to use it appropriately. Otherwise it can. It can do a lot of damage,
which we'll get to in a command line section this course.
So let me close this.
We'll go back to her
So that's that's basically it for this part. This is going through the file systems. We talked about the different kinds of file systems, talked a little bit about the difference between clinics and Windows file systems,
talked about some of the partitioning tools and some of the different partitions that you're gonna be configuring in the installation.
Now, the next part, we're gonna be going through a basic installation of a bun, too. We're gonna go through it again from a wizard point of view, a gooey point of view and not from the command line. You're not gonna be tested on the exam of how to install Lennox from a command line.
There are specific commands out there that you can do in to install a D. A command line, but we're not. We're not even gonna touch on that. We're going strictly just to get our Lennox up and running
so that we can use it in the lab situation
so you can see what it went on. A one to Lennox installation looks like.
So that's it for part one of model, too. And stay to shortly, we'll go to part
two of module two.
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