The ISO/OSI Model

ISO/OSI Model (7 Layers)
  • ISO: International Standardization Organization
  • OSI: Open System Interconnection
    • Primary archtectural model for networks
    • Developed in 1983
    • Group of concepts
    • Describes how devices send/receive data
      • Hop-to-hop
      • End-to-end
  Benefits of ISO/OSI Layered Model
  • Divides the network communication process into layers to be easier to troubleshoot
  • Allows multiple-vendor development through standardization of network components
  • Various types of network hardware and software can communicate
  • Layer separation makes changes in one layer do not affect other layers
  • Layers can interact with each other
  ISO/OSI Layers
  • Application
    • Network processes to applications
  • Presentation
    • Data representation
  • Session
    • Interhost communication
  • Transport
    • End-to-end connections
  • Network
    • Address to best path
  • Datalink
    • Access to media
  • Physical
    • Binary transmission
  Network Protocols
  • NetBEUI
    • NetBIOS Extended User Interface
    • LAN Protocol
    • Limited performance
    • Almost obsolete
    • Standard
    • Supports WAN
    • Vendor oriented
    • Poor performance if used with other vendors
  • Apple Talk
    • Standard
    • Supports WAN
    • Vendor oriented
    • Poor performance if used with other vendors
  • TCP/IP
    • Standard
    • Supports WAN
    • Not vendor oriented
    • Most widely used over internet
    • Mapped to OSI 7 layers
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