Introduction to Computer Networks Protocols


What is a computer network protocol?

  • Set of rules and agreements governing the communication process
  • Includes addressing, routing, session management, and error recovery processes
  • The traditional mail network as an example of a network with a protocol
  • The PSTN telephone network as another example
  • The mobile phone network
  • The layered model and its benefits
  • Computer networks protocols
    • NetBEUI, IPX/APX, Apple Talk, and the TCP/IP



  • Standard protocol over Internet
  • ISO/OSI compatible
  • Provides interoperability between different hardware and software systems
  • Open for development and not vendor oriented
  • Provides reliability as well as best-effort delivery when needed
  • Composed of a number of protocols built over each other
  • Offers web browsing, file transfer, and e-mail exchange
  • Versions 4 and Version 6 are running



  • Merging of some layers to be 4 instead of 7
  • Merging the physical and data link into one layer called physical or network access layer
  • Keeping both the network and transport layers separate as they are
  • Merging the upper 3 layers into one layer called the application layer
  • TCP/IP is now the default protocol for any Microsoft, Linux, and many other operating systems


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