Now it's time to talk about the Ikey Protocol, the network Clear protocol in the TCP I P Protocol suit.
The I P Protocol is the principal communication protocol in the TCP I P Protocol suit. It's the protocol responsible for the two functionalities off the network. Clear the addressing and routing. It defines the addressing to label the data graham or the packet with source and destination addresses,
source and destination logical addresses that are called the I P addresses.
It relays the data grams or packets across the network boundaries from the source to the destination, depending on the route, which is established according to the source and the destination I p addresses. This routing function enables internetworking
and essentially establishes the Internet
without routing. It's hard to imagine that there is Internet here.
This routing delivers packets solely based on the I P address in the packet headed solely based on the source and destination I P addresses that are added at the network clear
in the form of heather. Tow the data In this layer, the eye people took old structures packets and encapsulates the data with the source and destination I P addresses. Toby routed and delivered over the network.
What is the I P address? The I P addresses? The logical address that is depends
ding on the geographical location off the machine. It's unique. It cannot be repeated over the Internet. Each single machine over the Internet should have only one I p address that is unique. It's logical and not physical, which means that it can be change it according to the geographical location. Off the machine,
the length of the I P addresses 32 bits or four bites. Orrock ***. If you can call it like this,
version four off the I P address that is 32 bits. Version six off the I P address is 128 bits
each bite or each Oct. It
ranges from 0 to 255.
is representing eight bits, and each bite can take the number from 0 to 255.
The I P addresses are categorized into classes.
We can see Class A or Close B or classy or Class D or close E I P address
each. I P address identifies single machine and each i P address if added as a destination toe. A packet is used for routing from the source of the packet, so the destination by the routers it is red and
interpreted by the routers, which read Layer three information.
The class is off the I P address and let's focus on the main three. Closest A, B and C has the rangers,
according to the number in the first bite. The first doctor. If the number of the first bite ranges from 1 to 1 26 then it is close. A. If you train just from 1 28 1 91 then it is close. B.
If it ranges from 1 92 22 23 then it is close. C i. P. Address. According to this classifications,
there are possible numbers off hosts for each class. Class A supports up to 16,000,777 thousands and 214 machines. Each close B
category can support 2 65,534 machines each Class C can take 254 machines, only
the public I P addresses that can be given to machines to exist over the Internet in close a. It can be from 1.0 to 9.2555
It is red like this. 1.0 dot $29.255.255 dollars 255.
Then we skip the number 10 and move to the number 11. Tow the number 1 26
No tear that from close a too close B. We have skipped the number 1 27 and Ray close be ranges from 1 28 1 72 and range inside 1 72 is also have some numbers skipped. You cannot see 1 72.16 For example 1 72
not 15. Then 1 70 to 32
still 191.255 Then we start from 192.2192 dot 167 Then we skipped 192.168 and start again from 192.16922 23
not to 55 to $55 to 55. And here ends the close. See where starting from 2 24 starts The clothes the and close Theis for the multi casting address addressing
the private I P addresses that cannot exist over the Internet as rial i p addresses as public I p addresses and can exist only inside local area networks. Are these ranges in close? A Every I P address, starting from starting with the number 10 in close beep.
It's every I p address having from 1 72 not 16 till 1 72
not 31 in classy. It's any I p address, starting with 1 92.168 Tow 1 92.16
eight, not to 55 any I P address, starting with 1 92.168 These are the Rangers off Private I P addresses that can be given to machines inside Ln and then
connected to the Internet through some technology that is called the network Everest Translation or netting
tow. Give many machines having such I p addresses such private I P addresses one riel I p. Address Toby contacted through over the Internet. This is to save the I P version for addresses that has become scarce resource over the Internet and allow for more security
during the communication with the machines. Having private I P addresses over the Internet,
there are some reserved I p addresses you can.
No. Now that the iPad address is divided into two ports, the Left port defines the network. The right part defines the host. So if the network address is a specific number and all the host address is zeros, then this is the network address itself.
And this I P address cannot be given to a single machine. It defines the network itself.
It's an entry inside the routing table that we are going to talk about lately.
The Broad Coast addresses is composed off network address that is specific, and
the host is composed off all ones. This is used for broadcasting and cannot be also given toe a specific machine. It is reserved for broadcasting, So if we see an I P address that has the network address with a specific number and all the host address zeros,
then it is an utter caters. Or
if all the host address is once then it is a broadcast address and cannot be given to a single machine
device is working on their three device is working on the I P layer are the router and layer three. Switch
the rotor Endler threes, which are the devices that three directs packets between networks.
The foreword back. It's based on the destination I p address and, according to Oh, the routing table stored inside the router or layer three. Switch
According to this routing table, the packet is investigated and is searching for the path that it should take based on its destination. I p. Address the outer looks at the destination I p address searches the routing table for the right path, then forwards the packet. According to
this path found in the routing table,
Let's have a rule here. The network I d
equals the I. P address ended with the sub net mosque. If we have a given I p address and given some Net mosque, The Summit mosque is something that mosques the I p toe get the network i d. If we end them together. This is a logical operation that is done
between one sends ears and cold ending. If we end them together, we can get the network I d off this I p address
Routers are protocol dependent. They did. They depend on Layer three protocol
there freeze, which differs from a router that it is super force than the router. It is completely hardware and uses hardware in routing mean one. Routers can use software such as the routing tables to be used in the routing process.
What is the routing table? It's a table that is stored inside the router or later freeze, which, if inside the router than it is software. If it is inside the layer. Three switch the say that it is. It can be stored in a hardware four
or a firm where it is composed of rose that are red sequentially.
Each row is composed off. Several
columns. A column. The four destination Atwork column for Subject Mosque, a column for the interface that is connected to the router and that is used for forwarding the packet. A column for the Gateway. The gateway is the next drought. It is the next hop for the packet to go through
a column for the coast or the metric off the party,
and it is used if there is a certain path
that is an alternative. Both tow the main path off this packet so they are compared to each other
in the point of view, off coast or metric. And the less coast, the less metric is chosen for this packet.
The routing table can be bill ecstatically through the network administrators,
which store this routing table inside the router or can be built dynamically through some dynamic routing protocols, such as they are I p Routing Information Protocol or the O SPF Open. Short the staff First dynamic routing protocol.
The destination network can be dedicated
who are deducted from that destination i p address through ending with the sub Net mosque. According to this,
we can know the interface that the router is going to choose for forwarding the packet and the gateway. That will be the next hope for such packet. Toh goto.
If we want to see a routing in action, we can look at this diagram. We can see the host source and the restoration
host separated by three networks and to routers
each source connect to its
specific routed through indirect delivery. Then the router connects to the next router through indirect delivery, and then the last router connects through the host through direct delivery.
We can see that each to machines connected through the same, not accuses. Direct delivery routers contact each other through indirect delivery because they are not connected
directly through the same network.
This is routing in action. We can imagine that this host machine is in a country. And this distillation machine is another in other country
where an ocean can separate them. But packets can go through these routers from the host to the destination
according to the routing table. According to the path chosen by the routers Toby delivered from the source toe the destination based on the destination I P address.