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In the final video in the module we wrap up by taking a look at threats and attacks and the processing and dissemination of intel. A typical cyber attack begins with intruders performing reconnaissance to identify targets. This is followed by scanning for services and open ports that can then be connected to in order to gain deeper access. From there, info gathering is performed to set the stage for data exfiltration. Data can be hidden or encrypted to prevent detection and then later downloaded either in one big chunk or via multiple downloads. There are tradeoffs to the intruder with both approaches in terms of being detected. Intruders then have several options once gaining access depending on their goals and intent. Advanced persistent threats require a repeatable method of access and can be used to pivot to compromising other systems. If the intent is malicious, then an assault phase of the attack is entered. This can consist of destroying information, deleting database tables, or subjecting the compromised system to a DDoS attack or otherwise crashing it. On the defensive side, a great deal of planning and direction is required to gather intel from multiple sources. It then must be processed in order to determine if any action is required. The dissemination phase must get the actionable intel into the hands of stakeholders in a position to act upon it.