Introduction to IT and Cybersecurity

### Video Transcription

00:00

Hello and welcome back to cyber is create a sub net. Today we were going over the hex. Odessa won't conversions. I'll be your instructor, Trenton. Jiro, Let's go ahead and begin

00:11

today. We're gonna go over a quick explanation of hex decimal. We're gonna go ahead and convert Decimal two Hexi decimal.

00:18

And we're going over a brief explanation of how I P V six addresses roll into this and we're gonna convert an I P V six address to binary.

00:27

All right, so the isolation it is, if you remember the binary being a base to system being that there's two numbers is one and zero.

00:36

Hexi decimal is a base 66 16 system. Meaning you have the numbers essentially from 0 to 15 right? Eh? So if you look down here,

00:51

so if you look down the bottom here, you will see handy chart that shows what the equivalents are. So all the way from this end down, everything is equivalent zero through nine is the same. And that when you get to 10 that's when we start utilizing these numbers that you'll see,

01:07

right, So 10 equals a 12 equal see so forth, right? All the way up until you get to 15. So there's a total of 16 numbers. But remember, since we start from zero

01:19

and goes to 15

01:23

and here you'll see a just kind of a preview of an I P v six address.

01:30

Uh, this is And if you remember, Shortcut, you could just just represents that The intermediate, uh, little, I guess. Not a test with the groups. There

01:41

is just zeros, right?

01:44

So he checks a decimal digits equals four bits. So if you think about that, it makes sense, right? Because if you want to do 16 So if you want to get a total off, what would be, uh,

01:55

and binary you want do? 1248 Right.

02:00

That would give you 15

02:04

right. It would give you zero through 15 which would also be 16 total numbers.

02:09

And if you count, there are four beds here. Right?

02:14

So your actual hexi decimal

02:16

it is

02:17

four bits. So if you want to take, you know, 13 you would just do, um, eight

02:24

for

02:27

ah, to one. Right.

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This would be 13

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right? Since it's pretty simple like that, we're gonna go ahead and move on here.

02:38

All right, so we're gonna go ahead and do some conversion to binary here

02:43

or two decimal. Excuse me. So a f So the first thing we're gonna d'oh.

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So, hey, if you remember, is gonna be the first letters. That's first double decimal

02:53

number. So that would be 10.

02:55

15 right? We don't remember a handy chart or 10 a

03:00

11 B. I'll just write it out here, right? And remember, zero through nine is equivalent.

03:07

So this would be equivalent to just be 911

03:12

Same thing with this 2112 a b, c D. You see 10 11

03:20

12 and 13. Right?

03:23

So

03:24

it's relatively simple to convert. It looks a little messy because you'll see some of the numbers kind of jump together. If you're converting the decimal like this,

03:34

I'm going to clear the screen and we won't move on to the next slide here.

03:38

All right, so we're gonna go and begin here, So if you remember, I'm gonna go ahead. If you marry the chart. We have our decimals already here from last time. So 10.

03:49

What's going to convert Spider? We needed eight digit place. We don't need a four we needed to.

03:54

We don't need a one, so he would be 10

03:58

and then I get a 15. Remember? Is the max so that's just 1111

04:02

So here was convert. So we zero and then nine. We need an eight.

04:09

I don't need a Ford. Don't need a two with new need it one

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and then one on one

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for each of those. 2112

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101

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110

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All right.

04:25

Hopefully you're understand this as we go along here, let's go ahead and convert along the way.

04:30

So, 10 we already have it to talk. They're so 1010

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11 1011 12 1100

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and 13. 1101

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and just a kiss. You're curious. 14 would be 1110 And, of course, 15 is all of them.

04:53

All right, so the f B B six address it is the it's gonna be the successor through happy before. Everyone keeps saying it's gonna happen immediately. We're just gonna We're gonna flip the switch overnight, and all of a sudden we're going to use an ivy six. It's not gonna work like that we're gonna run. Dual stack systems were running I before, and I beauty six.

05:13

I know my router at home is running dual stack right now.

05:17

Um,

05:18

it's gonna be a gradual process. And the way I mean, if you look at the bit difference here, 32 bit versus a 1 28 bit,

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um,

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on ITV formers i p v six there is a huge amount of i P addresses for HPV six.

05:33

Uh,

05:35

but essentially, what it is you kind of call eight blocks of numbers is what you kind of you know, you call block like an octet. What you would say an I p before, right. Um,

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because each one is each block is 16 bits because there's four hex character's

05:53

and each each thing, right,

05:56

So you figure four hex character's by eight blocks that there's 32 total hex character's possible crime.

06:03

So I realize there's a lot of half in that. So if you look at 16 bits by eight blocks is where you get your own 128 bits, right, there's 128 difference

06:14

binary pieces in this. So if you look at trying to convert

06:18

something like was down here into binary.

06:23

It would be Rosalie large here. We'll just do the 1st 2 blocks, so f would be 111

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e would be one below. So 1110

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eights would be one

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for two,

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one and then zero,

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then a would be 10

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so we would need it. Eight. We don't need a four. We do need it, too. Don't need that. And then from there, we're gonna add up to its right.

06:58

One ones. You're one for the D.

07:01

So, as you can see, this would take quite a few numbers, right? Talking 32 different. I guess you could say binary numbers, but you're talking 128 different actual

07:15

binary numbers.

07:15

Right?

07:17

Because if you were to count all these up, you know, you would have a total of 128 different bits. That would be either one or zero,

07:25

Right? Cause really, you would set this as you know,

07:28

like that. Right?

07:30

So here, 16 of them. Right? Because you have four by four. Here. 16 16 16 16 16 16 16.

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Right.

07:41

You see, you have eight total blocks.

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Eight by 16 equals 1 28

07:50

All right, so if you were to actually been airing out each of these I p v six dresses it take a while. So we will avoid that for now.

08:00

We won't go ahead and move on

08:01

because it's not totally necessary to be able to convert these two binary. It's been skilled, Have

08:09

it was not necessary. So what I'm gonna ask is just convert like, the 1st 3 blocks here. Convert the 1st 2 blocks here just so that we get an understanding to make sure that you can pull.

08:20

You know this if you have to. If it helps, we can do this chart here. So we're going to a

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B C g he

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f right.

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This is 10 11 12

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13 14 15. And this would be 10101011110

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That 11011110

08:52

Well, to mount one. Too many.

08:54

Backed it up. All right, So if you want to draw a chart out, uh, to help you kind of remember, remember f one of 11 e you look at the chart. 1110

09:05

81000 and zero is That's right.

09:13

So I took care of the 1st 1 for you. So you take these first, his next two blocks going posit, write it on some pencil or use us and paper.

09:22

And I got no, I'm positive

09:24

already. Hopefully you got this. We kind of already did this, a B C D. One here.

09:31

So we're gonna do 1010101111001101 Really is getting kind of small someone a drag this one out here.

09:41

So,

09:43

yes, this was pretty easy as well.

09:46

Oh, that 01

09:48

and two year 010 Now, you don't necessarily need to have all these proceedings zeros, right? Um, I do it just for

09:58

sake of to know that that's you have your your four different binary bits there.

10:03

Right?

10:05

Because really, three would just need to be 112 would be 10 and so forth. Right?

10:13

You can always move down here, so let's just do 2001

10:18

It's easy enough to move on down to a

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1010

10:24

1101

10:28

We need nine. So we gonna do? Eight plus one

10:31

and seven were gonna do four plus two plus one.

10:35

So 0111 writes, This is the fourth spot. This is to spot. This is the one spot.

10:41

And if you want more practice, if you're you know, if you can't just quickly go through these, feel free to go through the You know, this whole portion here in this whole portion.

10:52

It's not gonna hurt you to be able to do these very quickly.

11:00

All right, so quick quiz here at the end. How many bits are in a I P. V six address?

11:07

Give a few second spots. Video

11:09

already? Hopefully you got this right here. Help you got once. Well,

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hope you got 1 28

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Remember, 1 28 because there is eight blocks of 16 bits apiece

11:24

because that is four bits by four different hex of decimals.

11:28

Right?

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Right. Which would go 1 28

11:37

already in today's lesson. We talked about the accidental conversion to decimal, and then finally to binary. We did a brief introduction at I p V six addressing, and we did a few small segments of I P V six addresses converted into binary, which essentially just hex decimal conversion of binary. Right? There's no difference. It's just

11:56

a lot of different numbers.

12:00

All right? I want to thank you for joining me and listen today, Uh, and I hope to see in the next one.

### Up Next

### Create a Subnet

This course will enable students to refresh on basic IPv4 and IPv6 concepts and to learn how to subnet an IP space in order to better provide network availability. We will dive into converting decimals to both binary and hexadecimal.

### Instructed By

Trenton Darrow

Instructor