10 hours 41 minutes
So the first topic we're gonna talk about our different hardware tools used for maintaining and troubleshooting network and activity problems.
Ah, here is a list of different tools, some of which you may have heard of, some of which you may own one time or another. Those of us who really needed a tool, whether DRI, a screwdriver, a wrench or a cable tester may have gone and bought one at one time. But we're gonna talk about seventies in depth,
a cable tester. They come in many different shapes and flavors and sizes. Some are more complex than others, but a traditional default plain Jane cable tester is really just used to test a cable. It's an electronic device to plug a cable. In one end, you plug the cable into the other end of the other device,
and it verifies that the connections
are all correct. In earlier topics, we talked about the fact that when you have those R J 45 jacks, sometimes you cross connect wire. Sometimes the wires air short, they're open ended. Sometimes they're mismatched, like cable testers shows you that and shows you when you've got a short when you've got an open end
or when you've got a good cable that goes all the way across from into N
a cable. Certify our takes that same idea up to another level, so it works as a cable tester. But then it also is able to certify that the cable is crimped properly and twisted properly to maintain a certain data speed. So, for example, it will certify yes, this cable really is working at Category five e specifications
cable really is working a Category six specifications, and you really can get gigabit speeds off of this cable. So assertive fire is just a fancy or cable tester that'll give you more information about the cable
creepers are what you used to put
tips or Jax Connectors on the end of a cable. So, for example, if I've got a cable that's got a plain Jane in, there's nothing on it, and I want to plug it into my wall socket, plug it into my computer. I've got to put in R J 45 Jack Little Plastic Jack on the end of it.
And then I've got a crypt that jack down with a tool so that it crimps down into the wires, and those little copper pins punctured the copper wires at the end of each of those eight wires so that I get a get electrical connection, right? So crimp ER's air tools used
R J 45 Jacks, R J 11 Jack's Different Fiber Optic Jack's Different Co axial tips when you could get a crimp ER for any type of media that you want to connect an end to that media type.
Ah, but Set is used to diagnose telephone problems, usually on telephone lines. It looks and feels a lot like a handheld phone unit. It's usually got a dial pad on the back of it so it can generate dial tones on a phone line if you need to. And it's usually got alligator clips on the end of the wires,
and you would put those alligator clips, perhaps on a 66 block right. We talked about those 66 punch down blocks,
and maybe I want to put those alligator clips on those little metal teeth
that the wires or punch down into So I contest for dial tone
that I contest. If a phone lines actually working right.
So these ah devices when you plug them into a dial tone, either using the alligator clips. Sometimes they have an R J 11 Jack that you can plug into a phone line and then you can listen
and see if there's any noise on the line.
Said There's any static on the line. See if there's any other, uh, sounds coming in over that line and then, of course, tested by dialing a phone number and see if that line's actually getting a dial tone.
Toner probes, sometimes called Fox and hounds, sometimes called Hunter Seeker, sometimes called toners, are a way for you to identify where a wire starts and where it ends. So on one end you've got the toner, and this is the device in this example. You see it as a little square box down there
that you plug into a wall or you connected to a wire. You plug into a jack you connected to a punch down panel you connected toe one end one known end of a cable,
and when you turn it on, it generates an electric pulse over that copper. That is a tone, basically like a sound like a dial tone but different sounds, different tones. They're all different. You could make him sound all kinds of different ways, but it generates a tone
down that copper wire. Well, let's say you're not sure where the other end of that copper wire is. Most often, Let's say you've got a wall Jack in the wall.
You're pretty sure that that other into that wall Jack terminates somewhere in that idea of closet.
But you don't know which one of the 50 cables coming out of the wall in The idea of closet is actually belongs to that Jack.
Well, you can put a toner in that toner in that jack, turn it on and then go to the I. D. F. Closet with the other side of this, which is a probe,
and touch that probe to each of the wires. And when you touch the one that's got the tone generating on it, you'll hear it. It's got a little speaker in there, and if you turn on the probe and you touch the wire and the speaker, you'll hear the tone beep, beep, beep. You hear the tone come out,
so that way you can identify which wire out of the 50 in your I. D F. Closet goes to that particular jack.
A lot of other uses for toners and probes, but basically you want to use it when you know where one into the wire is trying to figure out where the other Windows
punch down tool. We talked a lot about earlier and earlier topics 66 blocks and 1 10 blocks, and we use this term called Punch Down. And we talked about the fact that you've got to get those little wires coming out of that Ethernet cable and put him in the little teeth. And then you gotta punch him down so they get all the way down solid contact into the back of teeth. Well, punch down tool is the tool that you use
toe. Push that wire down into those teeth
and seat it all the way down into the bottom, and they come in different flavors in different sizes, and you have certain ones for 66 blocks and certain ones for 1 10 blocks. Most often you have a single punch down tool, and you just switched the blade at the top. The blades are interchangeable and you have one blade that's shaped properly for a 66 block
and one blade that shape properly for a 1 10 block
and maybe other blades that are specific for proprietary types of punch downs on different types of manufacturing equipment.
A protocol analyzer is basically ah, hardware based sniffer.
It's a device that you plug into a network. It's got a network interface card and jack
and allows you to analyze the traffic going across the network. Now, depending on how fancy the protocol analyzer is and how many features it has, you may be able to do different things with it, like inject traffic onto the network you may be able to do pee ings may be ableto measure transfer rates ben with rates on your network,
But it's basically a device
that allows you to plug into you know it's not a computer. It's a standalone device that you carry with you. Maybe some of them are a small as, um,
a tablet. Solve Omer as large as a big laptop and you plug a man and it gives you data about the traffic going across, Uh, your network.
Sometimes you can even analyze the content of the packets, the actual data payloads, if their fancy enough. And if you're not encrypting that data payload,
a little back plugs, a little bit of a legacy device. It's meant for you to be able to test your computers network stack
without actually having to plug it into a network. Because if you put a loop back plug
on your network output like a serial connection for your computer, you could test that the serial connection could talk to another computer because it's talking to itself. It basically just as anything coming in my received area, I'm going to send out my send area. Anything coming in my send area, I'm gonna send out my received area and sew it.
It tricks your computer into thinking is talking to itself.
TR is basically a
cable tester for different types of media. Okay, um,
you normally use it for fiber optics media,
but allows you to do things like wire mapping continuity. It's a very, very fancy now cable test. They're very fancy cable meter that allows you to do all kinds of neat things. Like if you've got a break in the cable, it can tell you how far down the cable that break is? It's five feet down, just 20 feet down. It's 100 feet down.
Where is the break in my cable?
Um, wir maps, which allow you to show hey, the wires on this in versus the wire on the other end. How many times a day twist and where did they input and output at? So it's It's a highly fancy cable test. They're used mostly on fiber optic media.
Optical one again analyzes specifically optical media. You more often see these. Then you see the previous because again they're more more often used on fiber optic networks. It can also inject light pulses to test fiber optics.
This is what you'll use If you were running a new fiber optic line
and you've got it, run and you've got your ends connected and crimped on there with your crimping tool. And now you wanna test to make sure that you can use the entire fiber optic line that all of the different fibers in there are transmitting and receiving light. You would use one of these.
A multi meter is an old school electronics testing tool that allows you to test voltage and resistance and continuity on
a electrical line. It's not specifically meant for computers and data or network. It just gives you basic electrical information about a copper line.
For example, if you've got a wall socket outlet and it's you plug something into it, you're not getting power. You would use a multimedia to test that wall outlet to see whether or not that wall it's got power and if so, how much power is coming out of it.
Environmental monitors are important, especially in data centers. So if I've got a data center with a lot of computers or server room, I want to make sure that those those computers that I've invested a lot of money in my high end servers and other things my routers, switches. I want to make sure they're not going to get damaged by the environment. The temperature is not gonna get too hot.
The humidity is not gonna get too high.
There's not smoke coming in from a smoking area, a kitchen or a fire. I want to make sure that my power is clean and is not having you know, spikes or brownouts or losses of voltage. Want to make sure there's no water in there. They don't have any leaks that, you know this is not a pipe burst that or anything like that.
So there's different environmental monitors. Everything from a simple is a smoke detector.
Oh, are simple. Is that thermometer all the way up to very, very high end environmental detectors that communicate with the network and alert you when humidity gets too high? Alert you when the temperature is too high, send you emails, communicate with management stations and management software counsels so they can
get his complex or a simple as you want. But the idea is, these devices
measure and monitor the environment, the physical environment to make sure that it stays within. The temperance is of your of your hardware devices,
so that completes our topic on hardware troubleshooting tools.
Are there any questions any of the tools we talked about again? This isn't necessarily a training class on how to use these tools, but we want to expose you to the fact that these tools exist and what you would use them for. So if you're trying to figure out hey, I've got this cable and I don't know if it's any good, well, you would know what tool to go try and get and find to test it. But any questions on the hardware tools?
in my line of work, and I use that toner thing and
a lot of times in our building way we still have the old a lot of the old IBM Jack's, although we're upgrading Thio the cat sick stuff,
and a lot of times there won't be any Jack Numbers are in there, so I'll have to tone it out. And, ah, a lot of times back on the 66 block their bill phone line. If I use that toner and it's running back to the 66 blocking, there's a phone line there. It'll knock the doll tone out of that phone line
with my butt set for a least 10 minutes
Is that is the toner use so much of that voltage in there? Going through that line knocks out for a little bit. Generally speaking, when you use a toner, you don't want to use it on a line that's got voltage. In fact, smarter toners, toners that have LCD read outs
if you plug it into a line
that's got voltage on it. For example, a dial tone. It'll tell you it's got voltage. I can't send a tone on it
now older school toners or toners that are a little bit less complex. We'll just try. And, like you said, override the voltage. It'll just try and send a high enough tone that'll get the signal to the other end and knocked the voltage out. What's really happening is
you've got two devices on each end that are generating voltage on a copper line, and one of them is sense enough to say, I see voltage, I'm gonna stop,
And the one that sensitive enough to see it in your case is a telephone system equipment.
So the telephone system equipment is saying, Hey, I've got rogue voltage on this line. That's not my dial tone.
I'm gonna drop my dial tone
Now. What it's time out is to try and reestablish the dial tone and recheck again. If the voltage there,
it sounds like it's about 10 minutes. What you're saying is like I said, you know, I'll be looking to the position on the 66 block of where this Jack is and a lot of times you've got phone lines, and in some areas on the 66 block, you don't have phone lines, and so you don't know exactly.
And when you plug that toner in
in the office into the jack, you go back down in the D Mark and you start taking the probe and going up and down, you know? And I said, You get the signal right there hopes there's a phone line on there and it's just like I said, I have to wait almost two minutes because oh, my butt set what I could do,
because I could do a 9975 and get the number
of that wine. It will tell me the number of that life.
But Hill Not that it'll knock on line out for at least five or 10 minutes. Yeah, so I can't even get the phone line that's on their back up. So what happens? Yeah, what happens is bye bye rule. You never wanna have competing voltage generators on a line. At the same time, you don't want to things
generating traffic on a line or generating a signal in line the same time.
If your toner is not smart enough or not advanced enough to see that. Hey, there's voltage on the line. I'm not gonna let you work. Then what happens is it tries to generate the tone anyway. And the other system, the telephone PBX probably somewhere down the line is saying, Hey, I'm seeing voltage on this line. I'm going to kill the dial tone,
okay? And so that dial tone won't come back up until whatever it's time out is,
so let it come back up to the PBX. Says Okay, 10 minutes had gone by. I'm gonna check and see if the voltage that was on there is gone Your toners off of it. Now it says the voltage is gone. I'm gonna reestablish the dial tone.
So what is your PBX is more sensitive than your toner. In that case, well, the toner, it does have a low power button in a high power button when you're testing. Okay. Even if I put it on low power, still mocks. Now you got a P B X. It is pretty sensitive. Yeah, Any other questions?
Okay, that wraps up this topic