Time
10 hours 41 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
12

Video Transcription

00:05
all right, in this section, we're gonna talk about advanced technology attachments
00:10
on. We're really talking more about The interface is too hard. Drives were talking advanced technology attachments.
00:19
A ta is a hard drive built in controller car referred to his i D. You probably heard that term or often the idee interface Integrated Drive Electronics
00:28
I was the original standard hard drive interface.
00:32
The only competition with scuzzy scuzzy was out before I d E scuzzy
00:36
is expensive and difficult to win. Take implement. So when PC started becoming more popular, they need alternative to the expense of scuzzy. So they implemented the advanced Technology attachment interface, which more commonly goes by i e.
00:54
There's two types parallel a ta or paid up
00:58
and serial a ta otherwise notice. Seita.
01:02
The painter was the 1st 1 on the block
01:06
with the 48 a wider 40 to 80 wire data cable as showing the picture.
01:11
I was out for a very long time.
01:15
I went through many standards before being replaced, which
01:19
we'll talk about,
01:22
so a Ta one was the first standard. The earliest one
01:26
replaced the to 86 part IBM PC 80 in her face
01:30
compatible with dearly buy houses, supports to physical drive. That was always or the limitations of I d was, how many drives it could support. You know, it was the Max could always support on a channel was, too.
01:44
Now the max size that drive could be on the i D interface with slavery and four megs.
01:48
That's crazy when you think about the size of we're going onto three terabytes now firing for megs.
01:56
Eso usually had a built in drive controller on the motherboard that talked,
02:00
uh,
02:02
as the middleman between the hard drive and the
02:06
E. D. B or the interface that CPU, the actual physical action was 40 pins
02:12
employed into the hard drive controller. So you had one end which would plug into the motherboard. And so, in this case, this end, the longer end would plug into the motherboard. And these two, which were closer together, would plug into this too.
02:27
Um,
02:28
the two hard drives or a hard drive in a sea. Wrong, Dr.
02:35
Um so the standardized, uh, sterilizing the 80 a. What interface came about by the programmed Io addressing
02:45
where the CPU uses bios to communicate with the hard drive so it became an integral part of the motherboard instead of a separate card and having different speeds. So we had modes 01 and two each with a faster speed
03:01
and that we're talking between the hard drive of the Ram. We had what was called d M. A direct memory access,
03:07
which also had three modes, uh, with increasing speeds,
03:15
88 to was considered the most important of the standards introduced E i d enhanced I d which had a higher capacity using logical block. Addressing start supporting. I apologize. So in this one we didn't support see Rome get this was just hard drives in the original A ta
03:34
uh,
03:35
an 82. We started supporting see Robin drives with our I D cables
03:39
and we started be able to support the 4 88 devices. So you have two channels. You have four drop. You could have a maximum of four drives in your system still limiting If you want to have a lot more than that, your only option was to use a scuzzy expansion card.
04:00
So as we mentioned previously, the BIOS was limited. The files for the A T. A was limited to drives at 500 for Meg's. So you had to get around that.
04:12
So a ta used what was called logical block address King, which allowed us to go above that.
04:19
It translated the local geometry of the drive into physical geometry and change the geometry to fit the BIOS primer. So it's kinda like cheating around the bios to create bigger drives.
04:31
A lot for 82 allowed for additional controllers
04:34
and increased tone number of support drives to four. So what we did is we had a primary i d a secondary i d The primary I d was where the boot Dr usually had to be. So you want your first hard drive to be the master on the primary? IEEE So each idee had a master
04:51
and a slave. It was called. So you know, the cable that putting the motherboard than two cables one for the master drive in the slave driver usually want your boot drive to be the primary master.
05:01
Otherwise, you could have compatibility issues with your bios
05:08
and finding your operating system. That's where it was expected to be.
05:15
Uh, it also committed the 88 p ice extension to the a t a standard to the a t a standard which was allowing us to use non hard drives.
05:24
Now, on the, uh,
05:27
in our in our PC. So talking tape backups and more importantly, see, Rahm drives
05:38
more on the D A taste. They're not going to break the 500 for Meg, right? Limit, dude. Outdated bio. So Phoenix Technologies, this their logo they created, they create quite a few of the bios is out there now for
05:50
PCs. And they came up with his interrupt 13 extensions to suppress the fire before limit.
06:01
So they're capable of supporting 137 gigabyte hard drives.
06:06
All systems Post 2000 adopted the improved BIOS commands.
06:13
Um,
06:15
most new hard drives have what's called smart self monitoring analysis, very important technology. This allows the hard drive, the kind of predictive it's gonna start failing. Um,
06:27
spare the nothing. It's I've had a hard drives fail without it. But the idea is it's supposed to mater the key components at the hardware level. And detective, they're starting deteriorate
06:38
and provide a warning to you through the bios of the operating system. Usually at boot time that hey, this
06:45
this Dr looks like it's failing. You need to back up your data.
06:55
80 a four introduced. So the smart was introduced by a ta three. The 83 standard
07:02
88 4 presented ultra d m a more modern method of communication between the hard drive in the CPU.
07:11
Now you can see increased speeds of 33 megabytes with D m a two
07:17
five just built upon that and add more to the
07:20
D. M. A modes for the communication for the hard drive to the CPU up to 66.6 megabytes.
07:27
Um,
07:28
use new ribbon cables and toe
07:32
for connecting the hard drive to the motherboard. So we still had
07:38
before when we did the master and slave, we had to say a jumper on the motherboard on the hard drive, saying, Okay,
07:46
you're gonna be the master and you're gonna be a slave. If those pins weren't set right, then you'd have a problem when they wouldn't see each other, right? So with a ta 66 they had color coded that Okay,
07:59
if it was plugged into the blue cable, it would be the master of what's happened to the gray. It would be the slave.
08:07
You won't have to worry about the jumpers anymore. It would be based on where you plugged it in on the cable instead of having to worry about the jumpers.
08:22
The big thing with a TA six was it got us up to 100 megabytes per second
08:28
for transfer of data.
08:31
So it didn't matter how fast the drive was. The drive
08:35
would still be limited by the speed of the connection to the motherboard.
08:37
So just like we were talking about clock speeds,
08:41
so then a T A seven is when we first introduced Seita
08:46
our serial
08:48
88 to replace the parallel. A ta
08:52
sends that over one wire is a lot faster, and the cables were smaller, more efficient.
09:01
Here's what the state of connections look like.
09:03
So it also introduced a new power connector instead of the old kind that we've been using for all our other devices.
09:09
So you see, here here is a serial
09:13
80 interface connector. And then this is the cereal 88 power connector going to the back of the drive. We no longer have to worry about setting a master and slave. That was an important didn't matter. The BIOS would would see all the drives.
09:28
The latest 88 cable up to 60 gigabytes per second. So we've come a long way from 1st 88 which we're looking at 33 megabytes per second
09:37
and you can see utilize a lot fewer wire. So So you can see just in this picture
09:43
how small that serial 88 cable is
09:46
compared to the
09:48
idea one that we saw
09:50
when we started talking about this
09:52
right here. I mean, that's a world of difference is
09:56
and it goes, you know,
09:58
so much faster. It's pretty impressive.
10:07
Like I said, the master slave model was removed. And, uh and also it it sounds silly in a case, a increased cable length. But
10:16
that was that was off often a problem. So if you had two drives an I d. That we're gonna be
10:22
on this on the old parallel 80 a IittIe channels.
10:28
Those cables were only a certain length, so you had to put the two drives next to each other. So if you had a big case, you couldn't spread out the drive. So she wanted to keep him cool because
10:37
that length and they still had to be able to reach back to
10:41
the motherboard, which could be a problem in the cereal. A TA cables are a lot more flexible and longer allow youto to reach further
10:52
pay device. Could be a song connected to stay to control. Agree of the State of bridge Backwards Compatibility Accident adapter. You'll see a lot of,
11:01
um, a lot of motherboard still may come with a Saito. Ah, nighty connector for backwards compatibility, especially if you have an older see Rahm Drive. They didn't come over to the serial 80 a world for a little bit.
11:20
Um also introduced the Advanced Host Control interface, also known as H C I.
11:28
Frying easier method for configuring your Seita, um allowed native Command queuing and, most importantly, hot swapping.
11:35
So we didn't have to shut down the system to swap out drives. You started seeing E stato connections,
11:43
which were external state, a connection so you could have a external hard drive much like you were an external USB hard drive. But it could be at ST I would be that the same speed as the hard drive's ring inside would be a lot fashion USB,
11:56
uh, your Your motherboard, of course, had to have the support for the external state of connection. But you could plug that in on the fly without having to turn the computer off and turn it back on.
12:07
And he really say that just like I mentioned external drives. Their hot swappable The cable looks very similar.
12:16
Um, how the internal
12:18
say the cable looks.
12:22
I don't have one with me.
12:24
So a lot of times I'll be on the motherboard will have, ah, connector that you can plug that you can put into the case to provide an east A connector. Um, sometimes you can buy an expansion card from other board. Doesn't have it that provides Andy Seda connector, an external state, a connector to your computer.
12:45
There's also a USB T's data adapter they could use.
12:52
So common thing that you might see like a USB de ST adapter is is a lot of times when you buy one of these new If you buy a solid state drive
13:03
for your laptop,
13:05
I'll let you back up your current mechanical hard drive
13:07
to the state to the new STD drive before you install and we'll provide you with is a little dongle that will have the necessary
13:16
E stato connections in the Save the State. A connection in the state of power connection
13:22
on a dongle and then that dangle on the other end will turn into a USB. So you played down to USB port and power on your
13:30
say to drive like you have plugged inside the computer.
13:33
So it's a way of having any kind of hard drive be accessible right away. It's very handy for repairing and troubleshooting.
13:43
Or if he gave a failed Dr
13:46
Ah so scuzzy. We've mentioned scuzzy quite a bit because he's been around longer than any of them.
13:50
The more the original ways of transferring data have started with the UNIX world.
13:58
So I won't even say an alternative to paid out as a predecessor to pay toe
14:05
eso scuzzy worked in what was called chains.
14:09
I'm kind of like token rings if you ever
14:13
dealt with those as a way of networking. So with scuzzy dries where you'd have is,
14:18
you have so say we had three scuzzy drives is gonna be hard drives.
14:28
We'll do four.
14:31
So for scuzzy toe work, it had to be a daisy chain, so you'd come. So here is
14:39
the scuzzy Carter of the motherboard.
14:43
The cable would come
14:46
into this Dr
14:48
and then this drive would have a cable.
14:50
Next, Dr
14:52
Next, Dr
14:54
Next Dr.
14:56
And then on the on the cable that would be coming out of here. There would be a Terminator which basically provide resistance and said, Okay, that's the end of the line.
15:07
And so scuzzy worked on this daisy chain concept. And so every device had an I D.
15:15
Which you would set through the jumpers on the hard drives themselves.
15:20
So it was important to ensure. So
15:22
if you were to disconnect if you want to remove this drive, you have to read daisy. Chain this one into two,
15:28
and you have to make sure they each also had a unique
15:31
scuzzy I d.
15:33
So the maximum number you could have
15:35
was 15
15:41
and then one of the I. D s. It was usually six or seven
15:45
was the actual card itself,
15:48
the actual scuzzy host.
15:52
So now you could have a scuzzy host ahead,
15:54
multiple buses and you'd see this lot more servers
15:58
so you could have another bus coming off here
16:03
and those could. Since those were a new chain, those could use the same numbers again. There would be a conflict there. It's based on
16:11
based on the chain,
16:14
but that's in.
16:15
So the key with the scuzzy was okay, So it's poured up the 15 devices, which still was a lot better than we had with I d E,
16:23
where we could only do two. And then when we get to the higher versions we could do. Four devices were already doing 15 at higher speeds with scuzzy, but the problem was very expensive.
16:34
It was also very hard to maintain.
16:37
I mean, change all those jumpers and moving them around. That's that's a lot of work.
16:51
S O is called the Skates. Scuzzy controller, um, stood for a small computer system interface, but everyone calls it scuzzy
17:00
arrangement 0 15 and had the same idea. If they're on a different chain
17:07
s o much like we were talking about with Seda, even though state came along much later, you could have internal and external
17:15
scuzzy so, uh, different. There's various different kinds of pin out that we're not gonna
17:22
um
17:23
there beyond the scope of this class where we have ultra scuzzy and higher level of scuzzy. They had multiple different kinds of pin out the basic one start with 68 pin for the internal and a D shaped type for the external that you saw in the Basic Unit devices. They started going up the higher speeds and using different pins, but is usually a different interface for the external connection.
17:44
And I'll show you a sample scuzzy card in a second.
17:48
So, like I showed in the document viewer yet the daisy chain of method of connecting multiple devices together,
17:56
uh, and they identified themselves by device ideas everyone had to have a unique device idea on the chain
18:02
and at the end need determination, which was a tool at the end of wired. Different signals from echoing backs that knew it was at the end. So you'd have been on there. The whole chain wasn't gonna work.
18:15
So real briefly
18:19
may show you some examples.
18:25
So we talked about sketchy briefly. So this is a sketchy card, So this would be if you want to connect an external connection to the scuzzy
18:32
and
18:33
here is a cable going around. You can see it kind of looks like an i D E cable,
18:40
but in this case, we had to
18:42
to scuzzy buses right here. I don't have the cable for this one, but we could plug
18:48
chain of scuzzy here chain here, and then we can plug stuff externally
18:53
so wouldn't be uncommon to see a stack of CD Rahm drives each for the cable, going to each one besides themselves, say, next to a computer and then plugged into the back of a machine. And that's how that was very common for scuzzy.
19:10
There's an example of a scuzzy hard drive. You can see the connector similar to the one we saw on the
19:17
on the scuzzy drive itself.
19:18
This is from a sun workstation
19:26
meters.
19:32
This is I D connection.
19:34
Typical I d dr
19:37
and you can see that jumpers over here
19:40
it's labeled,
19:41
You know, you can't read along here. It says,
19:44
Ah, slave or master So you know which one to put the pin on, depending on the kind of i d cable. So if this would mask this slave, you see the text right here and match up to where the jumper was plugged in right there.
19:59
Now here's an example I d cable of the newer kind of the latest
20:03
enhanced I D. So on this one, we didn't need to set the jumpers. You can tell because the colors
20:10
are different, so the blue end here would plug into the motherboard.
20:18
So in this case,
20:22
here's your I D
20:23
connection right here,
20:26
and it's keyed.
20:34
Now if it's there and then on the other end, we have room to plug in
20:40
two hard drives. So whichever one we wanted to be the master, we plug into the black one, don't want to be a slave, would be in the silver, and we wouldn't have to set master and slave on the hard drive.
20:53
So then, after we had I d, we came along with Seita.
21:00
I'll say to youse a lot cleaner connection
21:06
compared to her i. D. K was. You can see here
21:08
much Skinner skin your cable
21:14
lot smaller connection on the outside of Compare that again to our i. D. E.
21:21
He's performed the same function, this one
21:23
at 60 gigabytes per second. This one at 66 at the end about 133
21:32
and then looking at a drive,
21:34
you see, so This is an SST this an STD Dr
21:38
Racist e
21:40
solid state drive. Very light. Feel like there's nothing in there that's just memory chips, No moving parts
21:45
on the back Here we have two connectors.
21:48
The one on the right is for the actual SD data transfer. And the one on the left is for the power
21:55
and is keyed
21:56
only fit in a certain way.
22:04
And the other end would plug into the motherboard. This case, it's a single connection. They make other ones that have multiple.
22:11
So if we look at our motherboard
22:15
again, we see state of connections. This one has,
22:18
ah, four hair. And then we have another two right here. So we're already able to do more than I t. E.
22:25
And we matched that with the key
22:27
again. Unplugged it. And
22:30
there we go. We don't we don't need any jumpers.
22:34
And we have working Seita

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