so next that we have our different fiber technologies. Now, when we say that our fiber technologies have the potential to blow the speeds of other network connectivity, types out of the wire were very, very serious. Fiber technologies do not use electrical signals over metal cables to transmit signals. Fiber
five or technologies use light
wavelengths over glass or plastic rods to transmit signals. And light is
much, much faster, sending rates than electrical impulses exponentially. So Light's gonna be a lot faster from getting from Point A to point B on, and we can actually carry carry a lot more data on those wavelengths. So because we can carry more data,
but we can multiplex better, and we can send the data faster, we're gonna have higher bandwidths and a lot better speed.
So our fiber technologies and again the easier just just being implemented and just gaining some momentum are fiber technologies. We have Sonett
de wdm pon and are different. Oh, sea levels as well as our different are different types of where the fiber gets near us. So our Sonett stands for synchronous optical network,
and it's a type of fiber network. It's a fight for type of fiber technology which allows us to carry it carries other protocols. So are so net technology is going to allow us to carry things such as frame relay, A, T, P. A. T M and I. P. Remember, we talked about how we make we can have
frame relay technologies or a team Technologies which
are is a virtual as a virtual circuit and allows us to have that point to point technology. Or we could just carry a standard I p technology. Whichever we need. We can carry this over our Sonett.
Now, in addition to Sonett, we also have STH which stands for synchronous digital hierarchy. And STH is going to be the European, the European version of Sonett, which is the term that we're gonna use here in North America or in the United States.
So in Europe, you may hear sth standing for synchronous digital hierarchy
and the United States You were here so net. But both of these are very, very similar different terms very similar technology.
Now our Sonett technologies are going to be divided into different optical carrier levels, and these optic different optical carrier levels are similar to our different are different. T levels in that are different. Artie and the levels have different speed as you are different. Optical carrier levels
now are different optical carrier levels.
We have O. C. One, which is going to allow us to push a data a rate of 51.8 megabits per second.
Oh, see 3 155.5 megabits per second.
Oh, see 12 622 megabits per second.
Oh, see 48. 2.48 gigabits per 2nd 0 C. 1 90 to 9.95 gigabits per second and O C 7 68 which is 39.81 gigabits per second. As we can see, fiber has a very strong potential and has been implemented in many cases
as a backbone infrastructure.
Our information superhighways where we need to push a lot of data. I think all of the data that we're sending from one Internet, like an Internet service provider, branch office to an Internet service provider, headquarters or an Internet service providers main main vein that goes through the country that provides
provides resource is two different Internet service provider substations,
which then send it out the homes. That branch is gonna carry a lot of data, so we may run things such as far fiber optic. Oh, see lines of optical carrier lines in order to make sure that we're pushing that data really fast and getting a lot of bandwidth on it.
So in addition to our Sonett, we also have D wdm, which stands for dense wavelength division multiplexing. Now dense wavelength division multiplexing is going to allow us to send multiple signals over one fiber optic cable by assigning each are different signals a different light wavelength.
So it gives us the more potential for increased, caring, increased amounts of data
on our single fiber line. So think of D. W D M eyes a great tool because it allows us to have those multiple signals by you by assigning this different signals. Different wavelengths
on the next we have our P O in our passive optical network now are passive passive optical network is going to be a point toe multi point technology, for example, and Internet service provider to multiple homes technology. It's not a point the point technology
like we may have with our optical carrier. If we are O. C. Networks.
If we're using some things like our A t M technology, which is a which is a virtual point to point technology, our pond are passive. Optical network is typically going to be a point to multi point so Internet service provider to our house so that we can navigate through the Internet or Internet service provider to our business.
Now our pond technology is going to utilize one wavelength for the data that we're sending upstream in one wavelength for the data that we're sending downstream So we can use one cable for sending date for uploading and downloading data. Because we're sending those a different wavelengths across that line,
are different are pond are passive? Optical network has three major components that we're gonna talk about an O l t o n you and splitters ano. Lt is an optical line terminal, and this is what we're gonna have at an Internet service provider, office or our destination if we have fiber at the destination.
So the optical line terminal is
essentially the end point for a foreign optical fiber line that ends at its source, the Internet service provider, or at a destination building would be a no lt an optical line terminal. And then we have an ol You are sorry and oh, in you an optical network unit.
Our optical network unit is going to be our near in point location or near in point
terminal, such as a fiber box that from the fibre box we then have standard standard Ethernet or standard co axial cable the rest of the way to our location.
And then lastly, we have our splitters are splitters are going to be non powered, not harps. They're going to be non powered, non switching devices which will take a single fiber line and then split that same exact signal into multiple different fiber lines.
So if they're so say, a splitter would
allow us to take the same data that's coming down the main fiber line, the main branch fiber line, and then split that to multiple different buildings are multiple different. Multiple different terminals are splitters aren't going to look at our packets and say, Oh, this packet isn't for my destination. I'm gonna discard it. This one isn't for me. I'm going to discard it.
That's going to be the job of the O in use in the El Tee's. The optical line terminal and the optical network unit are going to be what checked the packets and then switch them. Are splitters aren't going to split and aren't going. Thio are just going to split. They're not going to move any packets or anything. Really. All they're doing
is providing a layer one physical connectivity by splitting that line.
Now, when we're talking about our optical are fiber networks are fiber. Networks are becoming more and more popular and because of their speed and because of their carrying capacity.
But one thing to remember is not all fiber networks are created equally.
Now, why is this? What do we mean by that?
Well, let's go ahead and make some space here. Um,
you guys know all about our different optical carrier optical carrier types O C 10 c 30 c 12 0 c 48 0 C 1 92 in o. C 7 68 We just talked about their different speeds 51.8 megabits per second on then. So on for those s o, we're gonna get rid of those
and let's take a look at what we mean by not all fiber networks are created equal. Well,
I say we have an Internet service provider
that offers fiber optic connective ity toe our location,
which is going to be our house here
the fiber optic connective ity to our location,
maybe one of many different types of many different types of fiber optic connection that they could still advertise as a fiber optic network because they have fiber optics on their network somewhere.
So we have our house, we have the Internet service provider,
and then we have some. We have these lines here
telephone lines that they sent out their crews and they hooked up and they started along
So one of our first type of one of our our farthest out type of fiber network is something called fiber to the neighborhood.
Now, all of these different technologies, we're gonna talk about you can you can research them specifically for years. Your particular Internet service provider, you're looking at by by asking what type of f t. T X they are using because the only thing that's gonna change with each of these acronyms is going to be the last part
fiber to the whatever.
So our 1st 1 is going to be f T T m
fiber to the neighborhood
now with fiber to the neighborhood.
What that means is our Internet service provider is sending data over optical lines,
but it stops at a certain point, and that certain point that it stops is going to be
somewhere in our neighborhood.
Now, when we say neighborhood, we don't necessarily mean on our street or on in our cold. A sack fiber to the neighborhood could mean anywhere within a couple of miles of us
so fiber to the neighborhood may not be our cold sack are our court or our road. It could be our large subdivision and were, when you get when you go to get to our house, you have to get off the main road and then go down,
go down a secondary road and then go down a side road and then you're at our house.
Well, that May, that fiber optic line may stop
after you hit that secondary road and then go down the side road and then go down into our court so that'd be that would be fiber to the neighborhood.
Next up we have what's called fiber to the curb
fiber to the curb is so we have our f t t n
where they got fiber to our neighborhood. So they were about two miles away.
And then and then they put a Then they put a fiber box, and everything from that point on is standard metal cabling such as a co axial cable or another type of cabling that they install. So that's fibers in the neighborhood. And then our next step, our next step up, would be
what's called fiber to the curb.
And that would be okay. They've got a little bit better infrastructure. They're going to take that cabling of that optical cabling, and now they're actually gonna take that and put it
actual neighborhood or actual actual road actual subdivision.
our fiber optic cable is now within within a mile of us. We it's maybe on our street corner. It's maybe right around the curb, but fiber to the curb, not necessarily our curb, but the one somewhere right around us in our neighborhood
is going to be those fiber boxes that you'll see installed
so you'll have fiber optic cables that go all the way to the fiber optic box. That's some that's somewhere nearer tow us somewhere in our neighborhood, and it's going to from that point on be standard metal cable. So then we have
fiber to the curb ff t c,
and we're gonna say that our fiber to the curb
is going to be half a mile away.
Feel free to convert if you're don't use. If you don't use the if you're
a person who does not use the standard of measuring distances,
um, so fiber to the curb will say about 1/2 mile away.
we want a little bit, so we want a little bit better. There are the company redesigns a little bit. They set some more lines out, and our next step is going to be fiber to the premises Now. Fiber to the premises could may also be referred to is fiber to the building F f T T B or fiber to the house f t th.
But it essentially means,
um we're now taking another step and they're not just running fiber optic cables to the curb, which is very one of the most common practices now. F t t n an FTC. But they're actually running fiber optic
all the way to our location. So it's to our to our little building.
once it's at that building, it changes to co axial cable. So maybe there's a There's a box on the outside of our building and then the Ethernet. And then there's Ethernet cable that's run to each of the floors. Or there's a fiber optic box outside of our building, and then
it's run or the fiber optic cable actually comes a little bit inside of our building,
and then it changes into a router box that has to be plugged into with Ethernet. That'll be our fiber fiber to the premises.
and then So that's gonna be at our building
now our last and the
most theoretically amazing possibility that we would have, uh, a SW far as our network possibilities go eyes F, T, T, D or fiber to the desktop.
What that means is we have the infrastructure provided to us by the Internet service provider and maybe we have. We have our network set up so that if we wanted to, we could plug in a fiber optic cable into our computer. That that was the same signal that originated from the Internet service provider.
At no point between us and the Internet service provider
is there a metal cable. It's all fiber optic cable between us and that point.
Now that fiber to the desktop requires a lot of things. It not only requires that you are in a location, that the Internet service provider will bring the fiber optic cable all the way to your premises, but they have to provide you with a a device that not only allows you to
if they if they install a router in in your permit in your location
that takes that fiber optic cable, and on Lee changes it to Ethernet cables, then that's it.
You only have. You can only have fiber to the premises, but if they install a router that is actually a fiber router and it takes in that fiber optic cable and then gives you three or four fiber optic ports,
then game on. From here, we can take that fiber infrastructure and we can run it. We could run it through our bill if you are home, if we want it
super expensive compared to Ethernet.
But it's something we could do. Take that fiber cable, run it to a We would need fiber optic switches. Remember, fiber to the desktop. Nothing is metal. No, we have No, we have no metal wires. So we run that fiber optic cable we run with fiber cables
to a fiber switch, which is gonna be a lot more expensive than a standard switch.
We run our cables from the fiber switch to our computer that has a fiber network interface card in it, A fiber nick. But we do all of this. We set up everything, and we now have fiber to the desktop. Some people will actually get
network interface card converters that take that fiber cable and then convert it to an Ethernet cable at the last
two inches of the connection.
But depending on the category of the network in a standard Ethernet network interface card, then it may be just a ce fast. You may be getting a you may be getting our one of our O C levels that is going to deliver at 99 gigabits per second, you may have like a O. C 1 92 that's gonna deliver at,
Ah, nine gigabit per second speed.
But if you have a say, a cat six a cable that is going to let you transmit at 10 gigabit speed max, then you're not losing anything there. So that last foot or so of cabling and that network in the additional little card that you installed that converted the fiber to an Ethernet to that Ethernet
10 gigabit Ethernet,
then you'll be okay. Then you'll still be in maintaining that extremely fast rate of speed. But again,
instances of this are very rare. Don't expect to call up your Internet service provider to today and say, I would say, I'm dedicated. Ah, a week from now, a month from now, I want a fiber cable that runs from you guys and plugs into my computer. They might laugh at you
it's not just the money that you're willing to spend on your own infrastructure, but it's the thousands, if not millions of dollars that your Internet service provider needs to be willing to spend toe up update their infrastructure and bluntly speaking, they're not going to do that until it's financially beneficial for them to do so.
If you live out in the middle of the woods,
they're not going to spend $5 million running that fiber cable from their office to your house unless you're going to go and you're going to pay them for all of that. So make sure that you understand what your Internet service provider allows for. You make sure that you don't have an Internet service provider that says,
Oh yeah, we provide. We provide a fiber optic network
only to find out you're getting fiber to the neighborhood. And then everything from that point on is a not very good metal connections. And you say my speed didn't really jump that much. Well,
it's getting to a certain point all that fiber connections getting to a certain point. And then
it's just so we have, like a 10 gigabit per second fiber connection
to this point, and then it just bottlenecks into a one gigabit per second connection. So
which isn't all that bad anyway? But just understand what type of connection you're getting from your Internet service provider
and you're realizing that knowledge will be able to better design your network to be compatible, to be compatible with that and to get the best results from that connection.
So just a czar Recap. We have our different fiber technologies. We have our Sonett with our different optical carrier levels. We have the WDM, which allows us to send multiple multiple wavelengths so different multiple data streams across one fiber optic line.
And we have our p O in our passive optical network, which includes our three main components here. R O L T
optical line terminal at our Internet service provider and our destination are Onur Optical Network Unit, which is gonna be our near in point sort of our fiber to the network of fiber to the curb type in point and then our splitters, which are non powered, non switching layer one
units which just take one physical line and then split it into multiple lines.