all right. In this segment, we're gonna talk about
in terms of data cabling. We're gonna talk about Ethernet, which is the most common form for lands.
Ethan. It's a digital synchronous communication standard specified by the IEEE standard ao to three.
Its various specify media types and uses requirements the signal standards. We're gonna go through some of those loans with the transmission speeds and distances that issue B O to allow traffic
for eternity. First talk about fiber optic cables. Some of the characteristics when looking at fiber optic cables are how long
can the fiber optic go Traditionally fiber optic cables contract a lot further their traditional cat five cables that we think of when we look at Ethan it
capacity. They could run 10 gigabytes or higher and carry multiple multiplex signals.
One of the really nice things about fiber is since it's light
its resistance to interference. Most of our other cables have been copper based, and you don't want to have those by electric diversity and cause interference and degradations say a signal
and at the same point with interference. They're also more secure because you can't read any interference office, so any kind of
electromagnetic activity coming off the camel, you wouldn't be able to read
for intercept either. You can't just go spice of fiber optic cable like you could with Cat five.
This is what if I rock that cable looks like
you have the data carrying core
at the very center.
This is made up of glass.
It's the smallest little parts usually very hard to see.
Then you have the cladding that surround the core, and that's what reflects the light inside. So think of fiber optic cables. It's thin piece of glass, and you send some kind of light down in balance, is at a certain wavelengths, and to cause it to balance inside that light is the cladding
is what reflects it back and forth inside the core to make it travel down.
Ah, the cable.
And then to protect the cladding, we have the coating
and in the strengthening fibers, really to stop. It is really just to keep the help, not break the fiber because you're looking at having a little piece of glass. You still if you try, if you take a fiber cable and go like that, it's gonna break the fiber cable inside, you have a very delicate with them. But strangely fight ever helped keep the form of the cable and then the actual jacket to keep everything together.
Sometimes you'll see multiple fibers, so you have everything up to the coating,
and you have multiple fibers inside that straightening cable inside a bigger cable.
You won't see that when you're talking, maybe a fiber connection cable coming to your desktop and longer runs. They could be in one jacket.
So first there's two types. Single more in multi mode.
First, talking about single mode fiber
uses laser light.
Ah, either 13 10 or 15 50 nanometers
must pass exactly straight into the fiber. Uses a long distance fire protection single mode. Remember, we'll always be the one that could go the furthest of the two.
It's gonna be more expensive.
Natural fibers approximately nine microns in diameter.
You can go the distance of 25 miles or more.
Like I said, the whole process of passing light through and the cable itself is a lot more expensive.
Terminations of more difficult to actually terminate a fiber cable, which means to put a connector on the end of it. is a significant amount of work compared to putting a connection on the end of an Ethernet cable.
It takes a lot more skill.
So with the single mode, we use laser light
to pass the traffic. So in multi mode
is for shorter distance, and it uses ladies instead
liking into the fiber out oblique angles instead of straight through, like with a single mode. We use these for shorter runs, so typically you want think of in a grand scale. You do single mode to connect buildings,
and you use five remote you multi mode inside the building
or for the last ah,
the last 10 feet to the wall. You'd use multi mode if you're doing fiber to the desktop
one, because it would be uncommon to see maybe single mo between buildings and then do multi mo between the floors on the building and to an Ethernet switch that would then turn into
into a switch that had been turned into Ethernet
for the rest of the floor.
That'd be a common
practical these for it
multi mode fibers, often between 50 to 125 microns
Seles expensive both for the units
and the cable itself.
so these are different kind of connectors that are commonly seen on fiber optic.
So the 1st 1 you see a straight tip
the round spring loaded with bayonet type block, very similar to,
uh like a, uh, very Houston net. It's a stick and twist to connect the cable and the abbreviation you're always going to see his S T
S. C is for the standard connector. That's more of a square plug.
Now, the important thing to note when dealing with fiber optic cables, especially
when using the S C and the S T connector.
single duplex, so you're gonna use one for each side.
But with the MTR J,
you can do duplex
so you could have two in the same one the mechanical transfer rester Jack
and the local connector. And you can see that when there's two fibers
to connectors right on there.
Now, any of these kinds of connectors can be used on any either single or multi mode. Depends on what the transmitter device is that's playing into
the transmitter devices. What the firewalker plug into the transmitter device is what's going to
shoot that laser and then turn it back into ones and zeroes on the other end
or led, depending on if using single or multi mode
transmissions. You have multiple speed, tears or no speed or duplex. It's one set speed,
and we can't miss and match them. So it's gonna be single mode transmitter on both ends
or multi mode
because they operate a different wavelengths in different transceiver strengths.
Like I mentioned, the connectors can mix and match. That's really just a specimen of mechanical,
so it's really dependent on the kind of
hardware using and what they require for a connector.
And as long as you're staying between single mode and fire a mode, you can use patch cables where one end would have
enough C connection in the other and have a S T connection,
which would be
yes, t the round one, the S C is the square.
You could see this commonly when going between devices may be in the same rack, one's out putting in a
AS T and the others in S C Zoo.
There's premade past cable that do a lot of that kind of stuff,
like I mentioned. It's a lot of work to create ends for those
Another common one, which was used in our early token rings and thin net
was co ax cables. We still see these for TV,
kind of same contact concepts instead of fiber in the middle, we have the copper center core
with an insulator around it in a metallic shield and then a plastic jacket.
Here's how the Colin connectors when we're looking at thin and thick neck.
This is the BNC bayonet tech connection. So this, in this case,
this would be the network adapter. You plug in a
T connector, which is part of the token ring, because you need thio. Keep a complete ring between all the computers you plug in either side
into the T net so that the network card would have this kind of connection on the back. Now, this was the end of the line. Instead of playing another connection, you have to put a Terminator on. But if this was another computer was further alliance along on the network, you pluck another B and C and
and this type is typically used for cable TV is gonna collect cable not really Ethernet, but just another use for it.
No picnic. Instead of using this kind of BNC connector they'd use, it was called vampire taps, where you could,
uh, basically crimp into the copper
to bring it into your
Now, this is only you don't see this much
at all anymore, if at all.
Maybe some legacy networks.
So now that brings us his twisted pair cable, the most common one that we see every day with Ethan It
we have shielded an unshielded twisted pair. So shielded, twisted pair can be used in environments with high radio frequency interference. And we don't degrade the signal.
That's good. If you're gonna bury the cable outside, you'd probably you shield a twisted pair.
But it's also a lot more expensive. Basically, what does it wraps an extra layer of foil around the inside V
So we're talking about twisted pair cable we're usually talking about. They're categorized by cat cat ratings, so we have cat five,
which in this photo is the yellow one.
It's the most common.
Then they came out with Cat five e,
which is possible of going up to one gigabyte.
Now. This is this is interesting to know if you noticed that.
So for one gigabyte
you're starting to see this in home networking stuff. But if you notice that your transfer speeds are still very slow, it's a good chance that you're still using a lot of regular Cat five cable you can. Usually you can tell the type of cat five cable you have to be labeled on the outside of the cable. If you look at the outside of the embassy, will say CAT five or catfight E or cat five enhanced.
There's still a lot of Cat five cable out there. So if you're trying to upgrade the speed of a network
and you're not seeing the performance, even though you know you have gigabit switches,
it's a good thing to a good thing To do is to double check the actual cable to make sure not using Cat five.
Now, the colors and these pictures are just
for reference or not. The colors don't indicate anything specific
Cat five. Incoming Any number of colors she's been soaking cat five
Can't six and Cat six A.
These were just his example, so use those as a guy to know which color.
The category is
then sat cat six. You could go further distance, and it can support 2 10 gigabits in cat six A is also 10 gigabits and can go even further distances.
Cat four and cat too,
are obsolete. They supported 16 megabyte and four megabyte. Token ring
cat three, they say obsolete for networks because we don't use them, they only support 10 megabyte. But you could still see cat three in your cables for your landline phones
be significantly skinnier.
And then cat one was just a straight line straight wire phone cable. You don't really see cat white. All
this is the connectors Look like for cat five when we're plugging it into,
we're gonna go make our connection at the end. So these are the different cables, different individuals, strands of copper that are inside the cat five cable.
And so when you go to use them, you gotta break them out into the right pin out on the actual r J 45 connection.
So there's two standards that you could see right here.
As long as both ends use the same standard,
you'll be okay. Um,
it doesn't matter which one you use as long as you both ends of the cable, use a or both sides used be.
I've always used this one. Is this the one I learned first?
So patch panels were used to connect are so we have a bunch of cat five cables coming into one location. So instead of trying to keep plugging them into different places in our server room, can have all those cat five cables coming to one patch panel that allow us to redirect
our traffic easily, just different switches. That's what a Patch panel does so
provide. The central point for inter connecting cables devices
allows easy rewiring and divisive that running new cable.
So you have a number of offices and they all bring. Each office
has a cat, five R J 45 or network pour in him.
They're all gonna have their cables running through the wall
into one spot.
Then you have this huge mess, the tables cables that come into your cable closet
so in your cable closet
may have Iraq.
In Iraq. You have your network switch,
which has a number of ports in, um
so you may have multiple switches,
so these might be on different networks. Also, network one.
network, too. So
instead of running each one of these cables individually into the switch by itself,
like, say, you want to move where that pork goes so you want to move to another network, you have toe, take the entire cable and hope that's long enough to plug it into the other switch.
Instead, you terminate them all in a patch panel,
it'll come plug into the patch panel. The Patty pan would have just number of individual ports on the front. You can label himto which room they came from, and you just run a cable for the patch panel to that switch. So instead of having so you can set all your cables to have a set like that, terminate in one place and then you can patch it
overto whatever network device you want to go to
on the hardware side,